"Yoga Sutras" Patanjali with commentary V.Zaporozhtsev, Chapter I (1-29 af.)

Title of the lecture:

"Yoga Sutras" Patanjali

and "Vyasa Bhasya"

Comments Vadim Zaporozhtsev

the text "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali.

Chapter I.

About concentration.

(Af. 1-29).

Author: Vadim Zaporozhtsev

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The main text of the lecture.


Chapter I

About concentration.

Om, worship of Ganesha!

Yes, protect you the one who left his eternal form, dominion over the world [beings], in various ways showing [him her] favor, destroyed [all] the totality of the passions, the owner of the terrible poison, with a lot of mouth and a beautiful hood, the creator of omniscience, snake whose entourage [transmit] to eternal bliss, he, the divine snake with white unblemished skin, gifting focus, abiding in concentration *

Student reads:

1. So 1, yoga instruction.

Comment Vyasa: "So" - here within the meaning of [the beginning of a systematic exposition of] the object that is to be understood [as the beginning of] the authoritative teachings of yoga giving presentation 2. Yoga is the concentration of 3, which acts as a property of consciousness at all levels of consciousness 4. Steps: wandering 5, 6, stupid, random directions (vikshipta) 7 collected in point 8, 9 of them stopped when the concentration of consciousness, randomly sent, not related to the actual yoga 10, because it is eroded distraction. But [focus], which, when consciousness, assembled in a point displays the object as it is in reality, destroys affects 11 loosens the shackles of karma 12 and aims to cease [deployment of consciousness], it is something, and gets the name of the yoga of consciousness 13. it [yoga] associated with [cultivation] selectivity, reflection 14, blazhenstva15 self and 16. These [four modus] we will explain later. However, at the termination of any operation [of consciousness arises] unconscious concentration of 17 [ie yoga actually unconscious].

Wishing to give its definition, [Patanjali] selected the following [wording] sutra ...



Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: If you start studying classical yoga, that is, the academic method: to communicate with scientists, to ask those or other Orientalists experts on yoga system, then sooner or later the person will refer to the treatises of Patanjali.



Student: Why?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is one of the earliest and confirmed dated texts.

Student: What does this mean?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: It is clear that every yoga school claims that its origin it is from time immemorial, the terms are sometimes called the most fantastic. Scientists are quite skeptical of such claims and shall take into consideration only those texts, where there is a clear confirmation of the dating of one or another method.


Disciple: What is can be confirmed?


Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Science has given us the radiocarbon dating method. That is, if you have a piece of paper, then you can with the help of well-known procedures to determine when it was created.

The method is based on the fact that there are so-called carbon atoms are radioactive, which disintegrate; and as decay, measuring the remaining percentage can determine the age. I will not go into the details of the radiocarbon method. If you are interested in studying it. By the way, a very interesting technique!

There is another method, indirect. For example, do you have one text. It refers to another text. It is clear: if the link, then this is already later.

Or - also an indirect method - in the present text any notion or definition of the influence of various schools.

For example, comments of Vyasa to these "Yoga sutras" was clearly written already under the influence of the Buddhists.



Student: Why?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because a lot of thoughts, images, typical of Buddhist approaches.

Still a lot of all sorts of indirect methods to determine dates.

"Yoga Sutras" Patanjali - the oldest dating back to the text.



Student: And to what century it belongs?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Co II century BC or II in. BC That is to this period - in fact, half a millennium - is the emergence of "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali.

This is one of the most authoritative texts, one of the most interesting texts! This text is a treatise of four chapters. Each chapter has its own focus, its own theme and consists of a certain number of sutras (afforizmov).



Student: What is the aphorism?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is a fairly short expressions that define one point or another doctrine. Very briefly, nothing more. To the extent that sometimes I do not even understand what they wanted to say at all. Use the special form of language, suggesting that the person can think out. Read aphorisms difficult, but possible.

These aphorisms were further written comments. Comments were quite a lot different. They write to this day. Each school of yoga, which is based on this text, is committed to write your own comment. It's okay, it's okay. In fact, we also, when we study the sutras, will give a comment. In the text on which we started this study, given the aphorisms of Patanjali with commentary of Vyasa.



Student: Who is Vyasa? Scientist? Are there any other comments, recognized as authoritative?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: There was a sage Vyasa, who gave some explanatory comments on the aphorisms.

Also very interesting comments that I have met the most, can be clearly convey meaning - Swami Vivekananda. At the beginning of his work, he stipulated that he has enough free interpretation of the Sutras of Patanjali. But I think that Swami simply decided not to pedantry, that is trying to convey a sense, not really sticking to some structures of language, which in our time has neupotrebim. It was said 2,000 years ago, all these phrases, momentum, fell out of use. However, strangely enough, that's exactly the spirit, the essence of the teachings he gave the most good. And in the future we will also study the "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali was working on Vivekananda.



The next approach. Questions terms. Unfortunately, this is the most painful point in the whole of yoga, like any philosophical doctrine and religion. Most disputes, most broken copies of these disputes are caused not true what that cause disagreements, inconsistencies, etc., but simply lack of understanding of terms, where the same things are called by different terms. But it's still all right. But when the same terms are called different things, there is already the problem begins. It must be very clearly defined in terms. If the concept in its place, the majority of issues in comparison of various approaches to yoga simply disappear. Here is a small introduction.

"Yoga Sutras" Patanjali de facto became the canon of orthodox yoga.



Student: What do you mean orthodox yoga?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: yoga system very much. Approaches in yoga very much. Sometimes these approaches are diametrically opposed to each other. If we read methods, for example, Patanjali or some other masters, which describes some tough requirements for food, sex, and anything else we can then get acquainted with the system, for example, Tantra Yoga, which is even score does not matter. And there is a kind of such confusion in the minds of people: how to reconcile the irreconcilable?



Student: And what ?! Indeed, how can we reconcile?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: The answer is quite simple. How many people, so many approaches. If you go one way, then stick to it until the end. If you go on the other, then stick to it. Do not confuse the road. In this sense, there is no real contradiction.



Student: Why?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because all yoga lead to one goal. We must remember this. But, nevertheless, de facto, there is an approach that yoga consists of a so-called ladder octal, eight stages - the so-called Ashtanga Yoga (This yama, niyama, etc. to samadhi). We will touch on this in more detail.

If you start talking with one or another yogi, especially old school when Tantric knowledge was not so common, it will be necessary to refer to the octal ladder Patanjali.



Student: Why is it so?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because these texts long time open. Tantra were quite closed, moreover they have to go in a more or less understood by the form, that is, with a breakdown, with the keys, it might be the last 150-200 years. And before these texts were for the elite. If they fall into the hands of the uninitiated, they are rather shocked, rather than something learned.

With "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali, the situation is different: they have long been known and in that time managed to spread widely, there, in particular, and to the west. And since they were discovered the earliest, they have become the standard.



Student: Patanjali Yoga has opened a new direction?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: yoga system very much. Approaches in yoga very much. Sometimes these approaches are diametrically opposed to each other. If we read methods, for example, Patanjali or some other masters, which describes some tough requirements for food, sex, and anything else we can then get acquainted with the system, for example, Tantra Yoga, which is even score does not matter. And there is a kind of such confusion in the minds of people: how to reconcile the irreconcilable?



Student: And what?! Indeed, how can we reconcile?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: The answer is quite simple. How many people, so many approaches. If you go one way, then stick to it until the end. If you go on the other, then stick to it. Do not confuse the road. In this sense, there is no real contradiction.



Student: Why?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because all yoga lead to one goal. We must remember this. But, nevertheless, de facto, there is an approach that yoga consists of a so-called ladder octal, eight stages - the so-called Ashtanga Yoga (This yama, niyama, etc. to samadhi). We will touch on this in more detail.

If you start talking with one or another yogi, especially old school when Tantric knowledge was not so common, it will be necessary to refer to the octal ladder Patanjali.



Student: Why is it so?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because these texts long time open. Tantra were quite closed, moreover they have to go in a more or less understood by the form, that is, with a breakdown, with the keys, it might be the last 150-200 years. And before these texts were for the elite. If they fall into the hands of the uninitiated, they are rather shocked, rather than something learned.

With "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali, the situation is different: they have long been known and in that time managed to spread widely, there, in particular, and to the west. And since they were discovered the earliest, they have become the standard.



Student: Patanjali Yoga has opened a new direction?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: None. Patanjali himself did not claim that it will open some branch of yoga. His treatise should be understood as the place where a given systematic review of different methods. At the time, he probably became acquainted with different systems of yoga, practiced by different masters. He analyzed each of these approaches, and brought a certain pattern, features common to all these systems. And he made an emphasis on working with consciousness. He took a moment, as consciousness, modifications, and looked at how this element of the entity operating the different schools of yoga. Collected material he systematized and wrote his work. In it, he refers to those or other methods and do not explain them.

That is why it is difficult to use "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali in some more practical purposes. Because it focuses on the work with the consciousness, not to work with the body, not to work with energy, does not work with some peculiar methods - there is mentioned about them. It mentioned fine, but again, in the context of consciousness.

Some methods of Patanjali did not mention. For example, all the techniques that are concerned Tantra Yoga. General principles, certainly there, but the specifics are you will not find.

Moreover, it applies even to such a moment is enough Undetailed as pranayama. She had not very good in terms of the details disclosed some exercises and approaches. And we know that pranayama, which was published, in general, of the tantric teachings - is in itself a powerful approach.

As we now begin to study "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali, we must remember: "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali does not claim that it is the ultimate teaching, which describes in detail the different approaches. No! It describes the main stages of preparation of consciousness to a decisive roll to enlightenment. We'll talk about it.

And the last thing that should be remembered, too, and about which we have already said - this term. Words such as "consciousness", "unconscious", "modification of consciousness," "change of consciousness" - they need more explanation of, that there was no confusion. The term "change of consciousness" (if we analyze in terms of tantric yoga, which has two main components - consciousness and energy) does not make sense, meaningless! Consciousness can not be changed! It is the immutable, it perceives that whatsoever.

During the study of "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali we have these moments very clearly for themselves to negotiate and understand what is meant.

Here, perhaps, all I wanted to say on the entry.

Now a few words about the way the study of "Yoga Sutras". First you read Patanjali's aphorism, then - Vyasa comments. And so we're going to go through the text. Then, just as we read Vivekananda.



Now let's pass directly to the first aphorism of the first chapter. Before you begin, as always, the overall time - it's thanks and tribute to teachers, which is expressed in allegorical form. Then the word "So", which means the beginning of the presentation.



Disciple: What is it and why is it important?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: To leave feeling that you got to the middle of the book, but there is a beginning and an end. A good tradition - to begin the text and to conclude that there was no misunderstanding.

All that can be said on the first aphorism: this is an invitation to explore.



Student reads:

2. Yoga is the cessation of the activities of consciousness 1.

Vyasa Comment: As [in sutra] is omitted the word "any" yoga of consciousness is also called yoga 2.Soznanie because of its propensity for clarity, the activity [and] inertia - trimodal 3.Sattva [as a modality] consciousness, which by its nature is clear being mixed with the two [other modalities], rajas and tamas, is bound to dominate and sensual obektam.Ona is mixed with tamas, tends to unrighteousness, ignorance and loss neotreshennosti sily.Ona same, shining in his wholehearted completeness when dropped a veil of ignorance, and when it is mixed only rajas, tends to righteousness, knowledge, detachment and the power of 4. and it is the same [this sattva mind] when it disappeared slightest contamination of rajas, is in the form of its own, [that is, in itself ], being a knowledge of the difference between the sattva and Purusha [both energy consciousness 5] tends to dhyana - [contemplation, called] "cloud of dharma." 6 Such a [state of mind] contemplatives believed supreme distinction 7.Energiya consciousness is not transformed and is not absorbed [objects], the objects themselves are showing themselves to it; it is pure and limitless 8.Razlichayuschee comprehension is essentially sattva as a modality [of consciousness] and thus, contrary to it, [this energy consciousness] 9. Because consciousness, indifferent to it, and also exempt from this comprehension 10. In this state, Sanskar consciousness is accompanied by a [ie unconscious forming factors] 11. This is the focus, "devoid of seeds." In it nothing is known, it bessoznatelno.Takim way because this yoga, [defined] as the termination of the activities of consciousness, two vidov.Raz in mind in this state there is no object, what is the own nature of the Purusha [ "Spectator"], which is the essence of - comprehension of buddhi, [that is, the mental experience]?



Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: To begin to express gradually.

Thus, the second aphorism of the first chapter "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali says to terminate the modification of consciousness.

There is a phrase that is repeated by all, except, perhaps, a silent yoga: "Citta Vrittis Nirodha".

Disciple: What is it?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: The definition of yoga, Patanjali has given us. Do yoga can have many definitions. What is yoga?

To make out the meaning of this phrase must know Sanskrit. Translate this sentence can be different.

Citta (citta) - an attribute of our consciousness, and vritti (vrtti) sometimes translated as thought-forms or as waves, whirlpools, eddies. Nirodha (nirodhah) - this termination, removal, destruction.

Here, I will still refer to our little school of yoga, to understand what is said there.

So, we remember that we have reason number one, number two reason and reason number three. Mind is represented in the form of water in some kind of container, we assume that it is in the head. The surface of the water - it is our mind. And for this reason the wave run - it thought.

Absolutely every thought, from this point of view - a wave in the Chitta, running over the surface of the lake - the mind. And just as in the lake there are many large and small waves, ripples, in the same way we have in mind are many thoughts.

In another way, it is possible to look at how to modify the chitta, consciousness, but consciousness is not in our absolute sense of the word, and the consciousness absorbed mind.

Once in the lake of the mind disappear all vritti remains clean surface, which reflects the sun of consciousness, this state is defined as Patanjali Yoga. Simply put, at a time when we disappear mysleobrazovaniya process, then we are in a state of yoga.

Our thoughts revolve large and small, serious and weaknesses. Our "I" through your consciousness is involved in these thoughts.

We remember that we have our "I", which is above all else, but it manifests itself as either consciousness or the energy. In this case, we consider that our "I" manifests itself as consciousness.

And through consciousness, which always, our "I" is involved in some kind of an environment that is changeable. And among that is our mind. Therefore, there is an illusion that consciousness is changing.

But the point is that if we imagine the mind as something transparent, liquid, modify, any wave on the surface of the core idea. You can, however, not present in the form of waves, and a swirling, whirlpool, smerchika. And each of these twists, vodovorotikov - this is the idea. Thus, it is determined that such an idea.

Of course, if something changes, this form of energy. But here, Patanjali, considered not in terms of energy but in terms of consciousness. It does not determine thought as a form of energy. We know from physics that the wave - this is where the energy is transferred, but not transferred to the matter ... But back to the aphorism.

So mysleobrazovaniya cessation or termination of the formation of thought forms, or even in a different way - the termination of the modification of consciousness ...



Disciple: What is a modification?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This modification. Termination of a change of consciousness. When it reaches the termination of a change of consciousness, then comes the state of yoga. And so Patanjali has defined yoga. In fact, it is the most important in his aphorism, "Sutras". All other aphorisms, which we will study the essence of reading methods, how to achieve this.

Very briefly: the second aphorism "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali defines yoga.

In Tantra Yoga achieved the same thing, but there is a condition defined by other terms and other words.

Any questions?



Student: Vyasa in his commentary cited modalities of consciousness: Sattva, Rajas, Tamas and. He determined that consciousness is in these three states. This refers to the citta? It can be in three states or in mixed proportions? That is, it comes from tamas to sattva (clarity), and it is in this state, the mind can be reflected in the citta?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Come on until we use the term "citta," let's just use the term "mind".

Yes, you are absolutely correct notice. So it turns out that the fight against thoughtforms we have ourselves as thought forms.



Student: What is the pattern here?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Anything can happen in three ways. Three modes, three qualities of one and the same: sattva (clarity), Tamas (inertia, obscurity) and rajas (activity).

There is the same situation is observed: initially the mind is in a state of tamas, it is inert. Accordingly, all vritti or thought forms, painted here this state of tamas, and the person in this state is not much different from a primitive animal, which also knows how to think.

Then, in the course of evolution and experience, with the accumulation of large amounts of energy, speaking our language, the nature of the thought-forms varies. They painted what is called rajas. That is the mind rusher. Thought forms are active, energetic. Before that they were sluggish, but now they are energetic and enterprising person becomes. Either animal that stymied due to stress releases a lot of energy, and his mind begins to work very actively. It is even a fraction of a second works in the state of rajas, and it helps him to escape. A person is more present rajas, there are very active people with a very active brain, is very good.

In the future, the activity starts to grow to such an extent that occurs following modification of these thought forms. They get coloring sattva, that is clear, the light of understanding.

But here is the paradox turns out that consciousness itself is initially clear, not dirty, it does not need anything, it is itself the essence. Consciousness - is not an entity that must rely on something else. No! On the contrary! It is based on the consciousness of all.

Sometimes this is a point of view that consciousness - a by-product which the chemical reactions in our brains. Here we have a very clear understanding of the situation, with the yoga point of view, is just the opposite: it is not the mind gives rise to consciousness; intelligence needs to operate in the presence of consciousness. Mind transforms consciousness. Consciousness - the basis of everything, everything rests on him. Next to that consciousness is the mind, which in itself, is unconscious, can not function. It takes as though the light rays from that consciousness and starts them impregnated modified. In humans, it seems that changes his mind, and in fact, his mind remains unchanged. Modify these rays of light penetrating the mind, which in turn is modified.



Student: How is modified the mind?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: If this substance is on it are disturbances of thought appear. If these thoughts are painted in one state, the mind is able to Tamas - inert unwieldy. If the thoughts are colored in a different state, it is a moving mind, he understands that and how he sees a clear picture of the world. If the mind is in a state of sattva, then every thought - it is the knowledge of all, it has a clear perception of the universe or of any phenomenon in its original form.

Consciousness itself constantly, and when we read here about the modification of consciousness, we must understand that this modification is not consciousness itself, and a ray of consciousness absorbed in the mind.



Student: Why is there such confusion?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is a very sad question ... Because it is impossible to translate this European language different concepts. We simply do not have such concepts. So you have all lumped together. For this reason so few people versed in the "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali at a good level.



Student: And is there such a smooth transition between the mind and the fact that more is called mind, or is it a separate thing?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, there is such a transition, but I will answer this question in terms of our yoga. After all, in fact it is the mind? It is energy!

The very reason the substance is energy, and the modification of it - it is energy. Therefore, a smooth transition between the two - is the same that the transition between consciousness and energy. On the one hand, you can draw a border that here one ends and another begins, but on the other hand, it is elusive.

It is interesting in "Sutras" Patanjali, that is the light of consciousness makes the mind work. This is a very profound thought.

Imagine that you have created biorobot, like a man with the computer in the form of the brain, and you will have a complete illusion that it is a living person. He will also speak. But it will not be a man, it will be very difficult to program the machine.



Student: Why?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because it lacks the creative aspect, and in terms of yoga it means the absence of consciousness. And if you dig a little deeper, there is no soul, or "I", which manifests itself as consciousness.

Our mind - this is a very delicate mechanism, but by itself it is not viable without consciousness. Consciousness - the magnet, or the generator, which makes it all the manifest.

Student: The following aphorism:

3. Then the viewer 1 is in its own way.

Vyasa Comment: In this case, the energy of consciousness, [or Purusha], is in his own form as in [a state of] absolute isolation 2. However, with the actualized consciousness she did not [seem to] such, although in reality it tak.- Why then [ it occurs] - Due to the fact that the objects reveal themselves [viewer].

Student: What does this mean?



Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: it is necessary to understand the following. If our mind - is the water surface, where splashing thought forms, and above it all shines the sun of our consciousness, permeates with its rays the body of water, and the waves, which in his run, create the illusion of modification of consciousness, the man says: "Today I am in a state of consciousness, in another tomorrow. "

While these waves you are splashing and playing these rays of consciousness, you feel that your consciousness is altered. As soon as the thought-form comes the cessation of education, when the surface of the lake is smooth, light falls on it - and then reflected. Then the mind begins to see itself, it is in its own way.

Then the viewer (the sun, consciousness) begins to see himself in the reflection of the mind in its own form. This is called not as much as the enlightenment.

When we are not in a state of stupor, and in a state of utmost care, but no thoughts in my head, in that split second, we see a reflection of himself in the mirror as their own mind - and there is enlightenment. At this point, we know yourself, what is our I.

As a consequence, all the sins are burned.

Sometimes people ask: "Why then the mind is needed at all times still has to contend with his thought-forms?" So he needed to do!

Animals do not have this continuous stream of changing thought forms, and some would say that there is no difference between the state of the saint in a state of thoughtlessness and a worm. So, a fundamental difference! One has yet to acquire the mind, then the mind is to develop, then start changing thought in this mind. Then learn how to stop the change of thoughts in the mind. If one (saint) only comes out of this world, the second (the worm) just comes into the boundaries of knowledge in this world.

There is a shocking uninitiated phrase: "Kill your mind" ...



Student: What does this mean?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: parasitic Stop thinking! Once you do, you will see yourself.

4. In other cases - similar to the activities [of consciousness].



Comment Vyasa: Purusha updated the 1 [characterized by] an activity that is different from the activity of consciousness. So, in the sutra [said]: "There is only one manifestation of [both], and there is a manifestation of knowledge" 2.Soznanie - like a magnet that acts solely by its proximity; thanks to the property to be observed, it becomes the property of the Purusha 3, his master. Therefore beginningless connection Purusha [the consciousness] is the reason comprehend it [the contents of] activity soznaniya.Tem least, this [activity] consciousness, being diverse, should be discontinued.



Student: What is the Purusha?

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: This is our "I", which will manifest itself either in the form of consciousness, or in the form of energy.

In Patanjali is not considered as a manifestation of Purusha energy, and is seen as a manifestation of consciousness. Yoga is based on this.

Is our "I".

This "I" manifests itself as consciousness, and thereby the quality of - consciousness - Purusha has the knowledge. Usually consciousness is directed outward, but at that moment, when the mirror of the mind is absolutely smooth, without a single thought, consciousness saw itself, that is, it is directed inward.

The most nearby to the consciousness - a mind. Consciousness perceives that understands the mind, the senses provide information in mind, and consciousness pervades the mind and realizes that understands the mind. Mind - is a buffer, an intermediate portion.

Human consciousness is drawn outward through the senses, objects, and people involved in this entire world he is conditioned, getting bogged down in the reasons for their lack of freedom. At that moment, when the mind is purified, and when there is no thought in it, but at this moment the consciousness reflected from this reason, directed inwards and sees his own "I".

In all other cases where there is thought, consciousness turns out the game, the game of a ray, and it starts to get involved more. On his mistake Purusha, or "I" sees the game of consciousness in the mind, and identifies himself with the mind. This is a terrible chain of bondage.

For this reason we live in this world, for this reason we are suffering.

In the future, all these changes of mind will be classified into several groups.

5. Five types of activities [of consciousness] 1: contaminated and uncontaminated.

Vyasa Comment: Those that are due to affect and serve as a field for the accumulation of unconscious "traces" Karma 2 - 3 contaminated, [and] having as its object the attainment of discriminating and countering the dominance of [three] modes 4 - uncontaminated. [They are] non-contaminated, even getting into the polluted stream, they [also] - uncontaminated spaces in contaminated; [On the other hand, remains contaminated] contaminated in between uncontaminated 5.Takim way, Sanskar, belonging to one and the same species, are [the relevant species] activities [of consciousness], and the activity itself - Sanskar. So wheel activity [consciousness] and 6 rotates sanskaras such nepreryvno.Buduchi [inherently] consciousness after it has fulfilled its function, is in self-identity or goes to Pralaya [ie to "dissolve" in the root cause in the end of the cosmic cycle] 7.This five activities - contaminated and uncontaminated - [listed below]:

Comments Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Yoga - this is when the mind is not modified when the smooth surface of the mind consciousness is reflected and directed to the knowledge of the Purusha, or its "Ya

But before we achieve this, the mind is absorbed in the ocean lapping the mind. All these sloshing Patanjali divided into five main groups or species.

Some of them - the so-called dirty (in its effects) thought or hesitation, and some - not.



Student: How do I determine that clean that dirty?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: They are divided on the following grounds (it is very good the intersection of the law of karma). Contaminated kinds of consciousness - when one mind produce the next, and so endlessly in a circle, when the number of thought forms is not reduced and modified from one to another.

But there are other processes modifying the reason that you slowly withdrawn from this cycle. You generate such an idea, which makes diminish the number of other mysleobrazovany.

So. Once again, what we have learned. We have our "I" (here it is called Purusha). Our "I" is the property of - consciousness.

Consciousness is essentially untouched, pure, luminous, illuminating and giving knowledge. It covers it all something that sent its rays.

As a result of the evolution of the near future, which was to these rays of consciousness - a mind, a certain energy substance itself is very clean. But this substance running waves of thought. As long as they run, our consciousness is dissipated in these thoughts.

Yoga Method as defined it Patanjali - is to make disappear all thoughts on the surface of the lake, at this moment of consciousness rays are reflected by our mind as from a mirror, and are directed to our "I", our Purusha. And we prosvetlevaem. We are freed, we go out of this world.

Patanjali vritti broke into five major groups, which in turn can be divided into two types - clean and dirty.

Net - is those with a reduced number of vritti dirty over time - that support. It will be a more detailed description of the differences between the clean and dirty activities of consciousness.

Patanjali speaks of karma primarily as a mental impressions.

Student: Is it possible to perceive the thoughts and full consciousness at the same time?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. This rapid methods of Tantra. If the human "I" at least once looked on itself, qualitative changes. This ecstasy, samadhi.

Then the "I" can go back and look outside. Renewed vibrations of thought forms, but have knowledge of what is inside. And at that moment the game starts knowledge itself and knowledge of thoughts that pass. Consciousness begins to shine simultaneously in two directions: it sees itself and the world around us, which is staggering. The same claim Buddhists, but in different terms. Their "emptiness" of consciousness - not more nor less, as consciousness, facing inward.

To exist consciousness not need an object perception. It basically can not be, and consciousness is in itself. It figuratively rests "on emptiness," but emptiness is not in terms of emptiness, and emptiness in terms of "nothing".

It anything is not based, it is itself a pillar. Therefore, the expression "emptiness of mind" must be understood correctly.

Student: The following aphorisms.

6. The true cognition, confusion, mental construction, sleep and memory 1.

Of them

7. True knowledge - [that's] perception, inference and authoritative testimony.

Comment Vyasa: 1 Sensory perception is the source of true knowledge, [is manifested in those cases], when the mind is affected by 2 external object through the senses channels. Objective scope of its operations - general and specific; its main function - to establish specific in the object. Result [sense perception] - comprehension activities Purusha consciousness [as something], indistinguishable [from him]. As we explained in detail later, the Purusha has a reflection in the buddhi, [that is, the maintenance of mental experience] .Umozaklyuchenie 3 is the action [of consciousness], having as its object the link is there between the [elements] of the same classes for which is a logical conclusion, and missing between [elements] of different classes. Its main function - the overall setting. For example: the moon and the stars have a movement, as they change their whereabouts like Chaitra (name sobstvennoe.- ed.); [Mountains] Vindhya do not have traffic, because they do not peremeschayutsya.Obekt, seen or logically deduced authoritative person described [them] in words to transmit his knowledge to another person; state [of consciousness] listener, occurs on the basis of words and having the object of their value have authoritative [verbal] 4. If the certificate testifying to 5 talks about things, not credible, or objects that have not seen [them] or not derived logically , such verbal evidence becomes shaky. However, the original certificate of authority with respect to 6 seen or deduced by logical objects can not be shaken.

8. Misconception 1 is false knowledge, not based on their own form [real object].

Comment Vyasa: - Why is it not a source of true knowledge - Because it persists through the true knowledge, [for] the subject area of true knowledge appears that there is in fact 2. In this and found the opposite of true knowledge and misconceptions?. Thus, the [false] perception of the two moons is refuted by the visual perception of the moon as really existing obekta.Eto [misconception] is the fivefold ignorance (which was told], "Ignorance, egoism, lust, hatred, and the instinct of life [are five basic] affects "3. That they [are designated and] appropriate names: the darkness, blindness, great blindness, the darkness and the darkness blind 4. in the future they will be considered in connection with the" pollution "of consciousness.

9. [mental] design is devoid of references and verbal stems from knowledge 1

Vyasa Comment: It does not rise to any true knowledge, nor misleading. However, in the absence of reference, [that is, an objective basis], its use seems dependent on the credibility of the verbal knowledge. So, [consider saying]: "Consciousness is its own form of the Purusha." But if the Purusha is not nothing but a [clean] energy of consciousness, then in that case, and what - is predicated [in such statements]? After indicating the function is shown in the predication, for example: "Chaitra Cow". Similarly, "Purusha is inactive." [Here on Purusha] negated property, found in the real object. [Another example], "Bana is, stop, stop '2. The value of the verbal root [stha] understood as a stop motion. In the same way, "Purusha has the property of non-arising." This refers only to the lack of appearance properties, but not [any negative] property inherent Purusha. Therefore, this property is the [speculative] constructed and thus entered into the everyday usage.

10. Sleep is a [specific] the activity of consciousness, based on the absence of [cognitive contents].

Vyasa Comment: And this [activity of consciousness] is a special experience, as it is played [in memory] on waking. How [else you can think]: "I slept very well; My mind is clear, it makes my comprehension ability is very clever "? [Or, on the contrary], "I slept badly; my mind is sluggish and slow, he wanders into its instability? " [Or]: "I slept in a deep stupor; my limbs heavy; mind is sluggish and exhausted as if he had been robbed? "This reflection upon awakening, of course, would not have been possible if, in sense experience [during sleep] is not present would be [relevant] reason [ie Tamas] as there would be no and memories that are based on it, and with it its object 1. Therefore, the dream has a specific activity of consciousness and yogic concentration must be eliminated, like other [forms of] the activity of consciousness.

11. Memory is the preservation of (the letters. "Neutrachivanie") past experience.

Vyasa Comment: Does consciousness representation remembers [the object] or [himself] object? Presentation, painted object of perception, there is [in the mind] as having the form and object, and the process of perception. It is that gives rise to Sanskar belonging to the appropriate class. This forms a factor acting manifestation that finds itself 1, [in turn] and generates memory, representing essentially the shape of both the subject and the process vospriyatiya.Pri This intelligence is what dominates form of perception process, and the memory - what dominates the shape of objects. She [daughter], - two types: [when] I remember imaginary and [when] I remember nevoobrazhaemo. In the dream recall imaginary, in the waking state - nevoobrazhaemo 2. All these memories arise from experience, [due to] the true knowledge, delusion, mental designing, sleep and memory. All these forms of activity of consciousness in its essence - a pleasure, suffering and tupost.Udovolstvie, misery and stupidity will be considered [see] about the affects 3: "The passion is rooted in pleasure, enmity - in misery, ignorance there is stupidity." All these forms of activity [of consciousness] must be stopped. According to them there is a cease-conscious or unconscious concentration. So what's the [achieve] their termination?

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: So, once again the main provisions.

We have our "I", which exhibits a property such as consciousness.

Consciousness itself consistently shines with a constant glow. It is itself the essence, not the product of something (tatva). Property of consciousness - to make clear everything that comes in contact with it. One of presence awareness enough that our "I" completely possessed information about what is involved in this consciousness.

Consciousness uses some buffer, called the mind, for the perception that with which it comes into contact. Consciousness pervades our minds and look what objects in the mind come. Consciousness perceives only through the mind.

In the process of yoga there are such properties that allow to gain experience, bypassing the mind and sense organs.

We are two faces of consciousness: when we see clearly and when we err.



Disciple: How to distinguish one from the other?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: There is a criterion by and large judged by its fruit.

What is important is the criterion of the long-term if it is a gross error, then you are in his thoughts quickly come to a mismatch.

But there are still so-called karmic conditioning ...



Disciple: What is it manifests itself in yoga?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: When a person begins to practice yoga intensively and instead it just gushed joy, fun and happiness, it passes moments of depression, and depression.



Student: Why?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because too many debts accumulated. These debts have been waiting for the time, and now you have to pay them. But in absolute term delusion of clarity of perception differ in the ultimate experience, the result.


The mental construction called Patanjali.

Student: What does this mean?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This can be a mad flight of imagination. You can not call it a mistake, because it is an activity of consciousness in a very different way. She would not supposed to match the real object that receives the consciousness.

Then sleep. Also the state of our consciousness.



Disciple: The dream - it is a delusion of consciousness?



Vadim Zaporozhtsev: We can not say it is misleading or true knowledge, we can not call it a mental construction, as the dream unfolds itself. In tantric yogis say that the dream is a kind of real space - the so-called space dreams.

Sleep - quite a complicated concept, there emerge what is our past actions, objects that we are experienced. But on the other hand they are somehow assembled quite a curious way, bringing to the fore quite strange accents, and some are more obvious on closing the rear.

Psychologists believe that a dream - it is a means of digesting unfinished in real life experiences that have accumulated during wakefulness. Nevertheless, the dream state - a certain state of consciousness, which is clearly different from the listed above.

The last state of consciousness - is memory. This is usually the perception of what happened.

Reproducing in the memory of some experience, we are experiencing it again. In Tantra Yoga is such a method - remembering that the essence of the phenomenon of recovery. The greater concentration on the recalled objects, the more clearly we feel this experience what it is weaker - the less.

With us in the process of life taking place these or other events, experiences that are deposited in the memory. Memory retains it. We say, "I forgot something". In fact, the memory does not forget anything. We just do not know how to remove this experience, but it is within us.

We have already talked about the imprints of karma. Each event leaves its mark, so in a sense, our karma is identical to our memory. This memory basically analog. We remember everything: both good and bad. And, accordingly, future actions we have largely done on the basis of the accumulated layers of memory, which we have already stored.

If our experience was good, clean and bright, then, accordingly, experience a clean, bright, and the following actions we make in the direction of clean and bright. If, on the contrary, dirty and painful, then it closes the circle of karma, and again we are condemned to fulfill it, to refine. Memory in a sense - a karmic imprints. Once we beat them, we begin to get over it, we will reach the state of samadhi. But this will be discussed in the future.

So again and again: we have an "I", which is called Purusha. In the Purusha is the property of consciousness. It is an axiom!

This consciousness is directed outward, not very "I" and the outside, and the man lives in this world.

When consciousness is directed outward, it operates in five different ways. This is true knowledge, confusion, mental construction, sleep and memory.

When the mind is directed inwards, in this classification already misses his activities. This is what we should do well to remember.

We have already made three basic steps.

First, we found that yoga is the absence of modifications of consciousness.

Second, we have determined that consciousness - is the property of the Purusha.

Third, we have determined that consciousness is directed outward, and it manifests itself in five different ways. Moreover, some of these methods is considered to be cleared, and some - contaminated.

12. Their termination [achieved] through the practice and dispassion.

Vyasa Comment: Indeed, the river of consciousness tend to flow in two directions: it flows and for the good, it flows and to evil. [River], which is oriented to the absolute isolation of the bed of discernment, for good flows. [If] it is oriented to the bed of samsara indistinction, it flows toward evil. From these [two] stream, tending to sense objects, overlapped by dispassion, and the flow [seeks] to distinguish, making its way through the practice of discriminating knowledge. Thus, the termination of the activities of consciousness 1 is based on both of them.

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: So, we have listed five kinds of consciousness. And finally, the twelfth aphorism:

"Their termination is achieved through practice and dispassion."


Here Patanjali brought us to the next logical level. It is understood that the mind continuously. That is, there is no moment when this or that person would not have consciousness. The process is continuous awareness.

There our Purusha, there is Purusha property - to perceive, and it "works" always.

The phrase "to lose consciousness" - just a phrase.

The issue is that the stream of consciousness pervades the mind and manifests considered five properties, directions. Each of the life situations faced by the people, makes consciousness switch to these different flows. But never to mind was not.

Many yogis, particularly in Advaita Vedanta, the emphasis on consciousness. If you can sit on this ray of light does not change under any circumstances, then you build inside the citadel, which can not win nothing, that nothing can overthrow. Even if you die, the mind follows the process of your death. It - the invisible observer. It is necessary to establish themselves and not depend on the mind, the senses.

The vast majority of people are not firmly established in the mind and in his breaking through the mind. But it is necessary to have a drink, for example, alcohol is the mind starts to behave not so, and there is an impression of loss of control over consciousness. If there is a sense that something can be changed, then you still "sit" is not on the mind.

So that consciousness manifests itself outwardly and modified five different ways. And yoga is achieved when it ceases to be modified, that is to jump from one state to another, stops changing, no longer to be absorbed by some sort of objects and lights itself.

Then a person is very easy to understand the mind and identify with them, to draw attention on itself, to go out and be constantly in the flow of his own consciousness.

And Patanjali here in the twelfth aphorism says, how to achieve this. Termination (referring to modifications of consciousness) is achieved through practice and dispassion.

Student: Well, practice - is understandable, but what does dispassion?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Understand it should be as follows. There are so-called active approach, there is a passive approach. Is the approach of energy, there is an approach of consciousness.

When we talk about energy approach, meaning the practice. Dispassion - is when you uninvolved observer (consciousness approach). Obvious methods. In all yogas so.

Under the practice of Patanjali understands the totality of energy methods under dispassion - the totality of methods of consciousness.

13. Of Practice 1 is [continuing] the effort to preserve the stability of consciousness.

Comment Vyasa: Sustainability is the absence of the deployment of consciousness nevozmuschaemost its course. Practice - is a continuous effort, [is taking] for this purpose, energy, the desire to achieve persistence [state stability] and [appropriate] way for its implementation activities.

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: So. Very, very detailed.

Modification of consciousness, we can stop the two methods. Either through the practice or through dispassion. Remember that the practice - this method of energy (effort), dispassion is a method of consciousness (observation).

The most difficult thing in the method of consciousness - it does not prevent its spontaneous action. I am faced with a particular situation, and if I show dispassion, from me do not need anything. You just need to watch, but internal programs make me involved in this action.

For example, I walk down the street, and I attacked the robbers. Of course, my subconscious reaction - to provide them with resistance, that is, to force myself to do something. And just do not get involved very difficult. Because if you have a hundred million times doing the same thing, you are a hundred million times showed its effect. It wont be involved.

To achieve something, you have to spend a lot of "money" or do not spend it all. Energy Method - is to spend a lot of money. Method of consciousness - it is not to spend it all. The hand itself is crawling to the "wallet", but it's just a habit. And we must seize the moment in time when the "hand crept" and stop.

Now, from the Vivekananda comment to read this sutra. Student: Comment Swami Vivekananda: "Exercise is a constant struggle for the complete obuzdyvanie vritti What exercise desire to keep the mind in the form of chitta, not giving him a run in circles.?".

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: So, we stopped at that Patanjali has defined yoga as Città Vrittis Nirodha.

So, to come to a state of stopping modifying the refractive consciousness through the mind can actually be in two ways: a method of enhancing the practice and method of dispassion.

Drawing an analogy with our yoga, it is the essence of two methods: the energy method and consciousness. The method of practice - it is the energy method, dispassion - a method of consciousness. And in the thirteenth aphorism explains what such a practice.

What do we mean by practice? It is all of our yoga. We do hatha yoga, kriya yoga, we make some exercises. And if we consider our activities in terms of our mind and consciousness of refraction in it, then all the actions that we could do, there are certain - those that lead to the management of these waves on the surface of the mind (vritti). These are all practices which have the force or the introduction of energy, whether it's Hatha yoga or meditation.

The meaning of any practice - through practice affect our mind so that the thought form faded and at some point disappeared altogether.

And here there is such a moment. Engaged people hatha yoga, even knowing all this construction, just making some effort, and sooner or later gets results. You may not know that in a certain direction is the town, but if you go in that direction, you will surely reach his. That's the beauty of energy approach: you can something not know, but if you strictly adhere to this trend, you're still subject to this condition.

So, once again: practice - it is consciously directed action, which, if we consider the Yoga of Patanjali, one way or another streamline vritti in mind, and then reduce their number, and then lead to a state of thoughtlessness, when all vritti disappear in the mirror of the mind It reflects our own "I".

The next aphorism.

14. But it becomes firmly rooted [only if] it hold for a long time without a break, and with [due] attention.

Comment Vyasa: [practice], which hold for a long time, adhere to continuously and implement it by means of asceticism, abstinence, knowledge and belief, [that is, with due] attention becomes firmly rooted. [In other words, its] purpose [that is, the stability of consciousness], can not be suddenly suppressed Sanskar arise - that is the meaning of [the sutra].

Comment Vivekananda: "sustainable results can be achieved by long continuous efforts and great love Self does not come at once, it is necessary to long and persistently strive for.".

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: Let's explain this aphorism. This is a continuation of a series of practice.

Disciple: The question immediately. How long must be dealt with to get this or that result?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Answer the following. Ability mysleobrazovaniya have been observed for a long time, for a long, long evolution. And to stop this flow of mysleobrazovaniya, takes practice.

But it is not necessary to engage in three days, or even thirty. It should be a long, long time to really get results.

It also depends on your previous karma. If a past life you just did was practiced, but now you need much less time. Or maybe not ... It depends on how hard you start to do it. If you do not regularly, then it will not give quick results. Need a concentration of effort, power, your energy per unit time.

But the point here also next. After all, we, as a giant ship, sailing in some course. And if we want to change course, we must make some effort. But too inert our past experience, which has been with us for millions of years. Several thousands of lives, we swam in one direction, and now we need to change course. It is clear that it takes time. Therefore, regular, long and persistent practice is necessary.

Not because a single activity can lead to cardiac mysleobrazovaniya. No, it can!

But first you have to neutralize the energy that was sent to the other side. We like to adjust your way. It takes time. The more effort we make, the faster, the smaller - the longer.

But in any case, these efforts need to be long, persistent, and only long-term result is acquired.

If a person long enough to twist it, then later it is observed a qualitative change, it is already in the future can not fail to cultivate, and the state, he reaches, become stable, permanent.

Then go!

15. Dispassion 1 is a state of complete overcoming of the one who is free from attraction to sense objects and purposes, sanctified by tradition.

Comment Vyasa: Consciousness, devoid of desire for sense objects, such as women, food, drink, power [ETC.], and goals, consecrated [Vedic] tradition - the attainment of life in heaven, disembodied and dissolved in the first cause, - even if there is connection with the divine or mundane objects seeing their imperfection due to the higher capacity of discernment, is the consciousness of the full address, characterized by the absence of sensory experience, free from all that has to be dropped or assigned. [This is] dispassion. Comment Vivekananda: "Reaching the one who renounced the desire to possess objects that are seen or heard of the famous who have decided to subdue them to his will, will be the release of attachments."

Comments Vadim Zaporozhtseva: driving forces of our activities are: 1) what he saw with his own eyes; 2) experienced by others.

These motivations and raise waves on the surface of the lake of the mind.

The refusal from them is the force that helps to calm the agitation of the mind.

I walk down the street, I was attacked by a man and takes me hours (talking about the case, which actually took place). In me rises a powerful wave of rage - and that this should not be allowed!

If a person can not restrain himself, he is nothing, and if he can, then he has the quality of vairagya.

Experience lovers of the good life lies in the fact that the satisfaction of desires is the highest goal of all. And in this statement contains a great temptation.

To refute these allegations, to avoid disturbances of the mind - that is the meaning of renunciation of desires. Curb the temptation, arising out of my own experience and from what I know from others. Prevent excitement chitta temptation - is vairagya. I have to control desires, and they are not me. This mental strength and is called detachment (vairagya). This is the only way to freedom.

Accents differently in these two books (Vyasa and Vivekananda) apart. I will give a commentary on the publication of the Academy of Sciences.

So we looked at the first way to destroy thought-forms - through practice. But remember that there is another - this is the practice of dispassion.

Once again, dispassion - a lack of passion.

Disciple: What is meant by passion?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: It's uncontrollable desire to get something, to something to get involved, something to experience. We are like bears.

We consider the classical yoga. Then I will say, it is necessary to understand, even from the perspective of Tantra because Tantra Yoga accents differently arranged. But the differences and contradictions between these yogis, despite this difference, no.

Now, a second method of stopping mysleobrazovaniya - a method of consciousness, dispassion method.

Student: What does this have to mean?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: If we start to observe their lives from the outside, we see that the desire arises in the mind. It is the mind wants, rather than "I", because there are certain vritti with which the mind identifies itself.

dispassion method - complex method, but, nevertheless, not as abstract as it may seem at first glance, because there are yoga such as karma yoga (yoga of action), which, as nothing, used this principle.

Disciple: How can he done?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: We're just seeing the desires of passing on our minds. We manage them, that is, do not give these desires take us, do not let our consciousness identify with these waves, but always share them.

The easiest way to achieve vairagya, not when the thought has entered into you, and when you put a stop to it at the approaches to the mind. When you have captured it, deal with it is much more difficult.

16. It has - higher education, [when] thanks to the comprehension of the Purusha disappears attraction to the modes.

Comment Vyasa: Seeing imperfections and hallowed tradition of sensual objects [becomes] indifferent to nim.Blagodarya practice Purusha vision [Yogi], reason is extended through [perfect] discernment [generates] purity of [the vision], becomes indifferent to the modes in their the manifested and unmanifested suschnosti.Takovy two kinds of dispassion. Graduate of them - not that other, as the clear light of knowledge. [That yogi], which with the advent of the [light] appeared the ability to distinguish comprehension, reflects: "All that has to be acquired, is acquired; affects that must be izbyty, izbyty; broken chain closed-end continuity of existence, while maintaining that the birth is followed by death, and the death - [new] birth ".Imenno dispassion is the highest goal of true knowledge, and absolute isolation associated with him undivided obrazom.Dalee. Why does the discontinuation of consciousness achieved by both methods is called conscious concentration? Comment Vivekananda: ". Full exemption from attachment associated with the detachment even from certain properties and comes from the knowledge of the true nature of the Purusha highest manifestation of the power of vairagya - a detachment even from attachment to certain svoystvam.No, first of all, we need to understand that is Purusha, the soul, and what the properties in question yoga philosophy teaches. the whole of nature consists of the three forces, or properties It tamas, rajas and sattva In the physical world they appear as darkness or inactivity, attraction or repulsion and balance everything... nature, in all its forms, is made up of different combinations of these three forces. Sankhya philosophy divide nature into different categories, but human soul is beyond classification, because it is natural. it Lightbringer, pure and perfect. The consciousness that we observe in nature, have no more than a reflection of the "I" in nature. by itself, the nature of extrasensory. it should be remembered that, in speaking of nature, we include here and mind-mind nature, natural, and thought. Nature is everything from idea and ending with the most primitive manifestations of life. Nature envelops the soul, and when the nature sovlekaet its shell with the Soul, the Soul appears in all its grandeur. Exemption from attachment is most conducive to the identification of the Soul. The next aphorism defines the essence of samadhi - the perfect concentration, which is the goal of yoga. "

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: This is a continuation of the theme of dispassion - the method of consciousness when we actually begin to understand that "I" is separated from the substance of the mind and those vritti that it pass.

But here I want to become attached to our yoga, to avoid misunderstandings. Being able to dispassion very hard. All our life implies a desire to get involved.

Student: Why are we eager to something involves?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: We want pleasure.

Student: And how we're having fun?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: pleasure (ananda, bliss) itself lies in our minds. But our consciousness is constrained by the fact that we identify with something external.

And then there is, as I call it, "the key and safe": there is an object, which is key in the lock, fit and reveals some fun. But in fact, nothing outside us pleasure does not deliver, but only reveals what we already have inside.

If this is understood, it is possible to practice the method of dispassion. Otherwise, it is masochism.

In Tantra, there is a good saying: "You want a sugar or you aspire to the taste of sugar?".

That is, we foolishly passionately strive to sugar, but really important to us is not a white piece of cloth, and the taste of sugar. We are committed to this enjoyment, but it is, by and large, it is in our minds. And if we are releasing, we experience pleasure from the taste of sugar, but sugar is by and large has nothing to do. Man wants sugar from ignorance! He identifies a state of bliss with the object.

Status of dispassion - this is when you realize that the taste of sugar is in your mind, and all my thoughts, objects, action - this is the essence of the keys that help your consciousness to release it. But there is another way, a straight line - receiving the same without an external object.

So, one method - a method of action, another method - dispassion.

We start razotozhdestvlyat himself with external objects we observe dispassionately, no matter what happens, be treated equally easy for all things: like those that bring us pleasure, and to those who bring us suffering. We are not involved, we cease to experience discrimination.

There are ways to do it. One of them - this is karma yoga: when we work without waiting for reward. We simply carry out the process without worrying about the result, and it happens automatically.

Then go.

17. [It] - conscious, as is accompanied by forms of selectivity, reflection, bliss and self.

Comment Vyasa: Selectivity is the "rough" experience about the object of consciousness, reflection - "thin". Bliss is [domestic] rise. Self is the consciousness of unity with [their own] 'I' .Here first [step] concentration, accompanied by [all] four [forms, called] "with selectivity." Second, devoid of selectivity - "a reflection". Third, deprived of reflection, - "with bliss." Fourth, and deprived him - "just-self." All these [stage] concentration [called] "endowed with legs" Further, the concentration of the unconscious. What is the method [to achieve it] and what is its own nature? Comment Vivekananda: Focusing called true knowledge is that which is accompanied by reasoning, discrimination, bliss, uncertainty of personal principle. There are two kinds of samadhi: sampradzhnyata and Asamprajnata. In sampradzhnyata samadhi appear all the forces that govern nature. There are four types of such concentration. The first is called savitarka: here the mind again and again focuses on an object, separating it from the rest. In accordance with the categorization of Sankhya there are two kinds of objects to be concentrated: (1) Twenty-four species of nature, devoid of feeling; (2) one Purusha, possessing feeling. This yoga section is entirely based on the Sankhya philosophy, which I have already told you. Do you remember that private start, will and mind have a single foundation - is Chitta, or the common substrate. Citta absorbs the forces of nature and returns them in the form of thoughts. It should also be something where energy and matter are one. This something is called - avyakta nature in neproyavivshemsya state what it is before the creation and how it gets on the end of a cycle again in order to appear again later. In addition, the Purusha - the spiritual principle of intelligence. Knowledge is power, and knowing we gain power over been known, so the mind, focusing on different elements, gains power over them. Savitarka is the kind of meditation in which the external elements of the universe are objects in their rough form. Vitarka question is; savitarka - followed by the question, ie in this case we would like to inquire of the elements that, together with knowledge about themselves, they have given man meditating on them, and authority over them. However, the possession of power does not lead to liberation: the power - it's all the same desire to meet the desires, and in this life there is no satisfaction, and it is useless to look for it. Old, old lesson that is given to man so bad; learn this lesson, man goes out of the limits of this universe, and it is free. Having the same properties that are commonly referred to as occult, even stronger ties to the world, and ultimately only strengthens human suffering. Though as a scientist Patanjali points out these possibilities, he never misses an opportunity to warn people away from them. There is another version of the same meditation when a person is trying to highlight the elements of time and space to think about them as they are. This is called? nirvitarka, without question. At a higher level of meditation, the object of which are tanmatras, subtle elements, viewed in time and space, can meditation savichara - with distinction, and nirvichara - without distinction, when five elements are taken as they are outside of time and space. At the next level the object of meditation are not elements, coarse or fine, and internal organ, the organ of thought. If it is seen as active or passive, while meditation is called Sananda, samadhi bliss. When the object of meditation, the mind becomes himself, when meditation is gaining maturity and depth when you stop noticing the gross and subtle elements and is only saggvicheskoe state "is" isolated from the rest, then it sasmita samadhi. The man reached him, "freed from the body"; Vedic definition, he can consider himself exempt from rough carnal shell, but the shell is still thin, of course, remains. Cherished goal of this person does not reach, but merging with nature, he receives the name prakritilaya; not satisfied with this stage and going on, it tends to purpose - to freedom.

18. Other [concentration at which] remain [only] forming factors preceded practice, causes the termination [activities of consciousness].

Comment Vyasa: Unconscious concentration - a stop of consciousness in which all its activities are terminated and there are only Sanskar, [that is, the unconscious formative factors]. The method of achieving it - higher dispassion, for the practice of [work] with the object [as a pillar of consciousness] can not serve as a means for its implementation. Pedestal [unconscious concentration] becomes the cause of the stop [activities of consciousness], which has no objective reality. With this [focusing] the object is absent. [Condition] consciousness, which is preceded by this practice, deprived of support, as if it had vested nesuschestvovaniem.Tak [there] is "devoid of seed" 1 concentration, [called] bessoznatelnym.Ono, as we know, [the case] of two types: due method and conditioned existence. Of these [focus], due to the method, characteristic [only] yogis.

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: So, there are two such moments.

We remember that the yoga of Patanjali - is the work primarily with the mind, and certain types of concentration - effect of consciousness. And here we must distinguish between two basic ways or method.

First - this is where we are concentrating on those or other objects, phenomena; that is, outside there is something on which we focus our consciousness.

Student: How?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: We begin to think only about the object.

Consciousness is not used to focus on one thing, but I willed again and returning it to the object of concentration.

Here we have the surface of the mind, which thought the waves, and sooner or later there is only one thought about that object and nothing else. This meditation, working with consciousness, is based on an object. In its activities, it still leaves the impression in my mind from the outside world. That is, it leaves traces of karma.

The second way - is if I focused on one thing, which is my Purusha, my "I". In other words, consciousness focused on itself. In this case there is no external object, because our "I" is devoid of materiality, it is out of this world. This gives rise to a certain state, which does not leave imprints of karma.

There is some reason called the unconscious, rather, on the contrary, it superconscient ...

While focusing on the object of meditation there is a number of side effects, the common people called supernormal. That is, I'm starting to know all about the object. But these powers are still in the cycle of karma. That is why yoga focuses on the fact that we are not particularly hung up on the hit. We need to use them, but they should not become an end in itself, because sverhsprosobnosti - it is a machine that will weave a subtle karma. It's like the shackles compared to the state when we are concentrating on their own "I". This state takes us from the cycle of birth and death, because in our chain of causes and effects appear white spots, because you rely on your "I", which is higher than that due to the world.

Still, it is very important aphorisms ... Come again briefly.

Thus, the method of consciousness - we hire concentration, meditation. Thinking. The word meditation - also, incidentally, European word.

And if we begin to deal with the concentration, or meditation, is, by and large, we can divide them into two large groups, rather, two stages. The first stage leads then to the second stage.

The first step - it is the 17th aphorism. Read it again.


[It] - conscious, as is accompanied by forms of selectivity, reflection, bliss and self.


Vadim Zaporozhtsev: The first stage of concentration or work on the concentration of consciousness, this method means that when we practice this kind of meditation, they are similar in their leak to the image, as the works of our ordinary consciousness at the usual time. That is, it is caused by external objects, and it gives a response to these external sites.

Again! There is an external object or phenomenon, precise copy is formed in the mind, and our mind focuses on these waves, which are caused by these objects.

I think the god Shiva. Lord Shiva is formed in my mind, and my mind flashes the image formed in my mind. There is an external object.

Student: Is there division between subject and object.

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Absolutely! Firstly, there is a separation of subject and object, and secondly, this meditation, or that the concentration of the activity of consciousness is tied to the object, even this higher, as the god Shiva with attributes. That is, one can imagine the god Shiva sitting in a meditation pose on Mount Kailash, his entwined snakes, he has three eyes - and all the other attributes. No matter how high the god Siva, whatever the highest level, he may hold, it has attributes. We largely focus on God with attributes. I'm not talking about an ordinary object, such as a clay mug in hand, and we are focusing on it. This method chanbuddistov: their tea ceremonies, including a focus on all that is at hand. There is a circle from which they sip green tea - they concentrate on it ...

It is clear that between the cup and the god Shiva - the abyss. But even such a great level of concentration, or focus, or the perception of the god Shiva in its attributes - it is still a method, due to some kind of support. There properties, image, god Shiva somehow looks like something he is painted in pictures, somehow it seems to us. Let him and omnipotent, but it seems to us with some qualities.

Here he is the founder of Yoga can meditate, fly through the air, walk through walls, perform miracles, raise from the dead anyone. It has all the supernormal, siddha, can control the minds of others, to subdue all the living beings who are near him.

But nevertheless, when we think about it, we think with some specific attributes. And we can be so much engrossed in a way of the god Shiva, that in this case we no longer perceive the external reality. We cease to do something to see and hear. All our thoughts are focused on Him.

Student: What if this happens?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: The substance of our mind there is only one wave. This wave - the image of the god Shiva. And our consciousness is refracted only in the same wavelength, in the wake of the god Shiva.

In this method, constructed many yoga, sometimes called associated with religiosity, such as Bhakti Yoga. We further consider it.

But, nevertheless, it is the concentration of the attributes: there is some property that is in the mind makes a wave in it refract the rays of our consciousness, and consciousness perceives only that image.

Here, Patanjali mentioned a whole chain of properties, approaches that are associated with a large display of pleasure.

Student: Why?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because it offers pleasure, which we have laid down. The more we concentrate our consciousness, rather than letting it dissipate, and focusing it in a single ray, so inside we experience more and more pleasure.

Student: How is this explained?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Our inner self is not sprayed, and more than ever concentrated. So if you meet Krishnas and ask him what he does, he will tell you: "I repeat the sweet name of Krishna I only think about Krsna and nothing else.". You will ask: "How do you spend your spare time?" And he would look at you like crazy, asking: "What is the perception of leisure time for me to Lord Krishna - it's leisure, and a lack of time, and all together."

That is, I may be absorbed in this way for hours, days, day, week. It is somewhere, even ecstatic.

Student: Why?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, because he has only one thought - the god Krishna. More about anything. And as soon as he is able to focus on this one thought, it literally pours, captures the flow of pleasure and bliss, which is the essence of his "I". That is, thinking about God Krishna leads to the fact that it gets so high ... the key that opens the enjoyment concluded within this Krishnas.

So, the first step - this is when we have the facility to highlight the consciousness, but, if anything, the appearance. The stronger the concentration, the more enjoyment man to himself opens. Krischnait can from morning to night sitting, repeating the name of Krishna, the room not to go. And we think: "Sitting there in his cell, chto-to mutters under his breath. There are so many interesting things: on TV transmission exciting show outside the birds are singing, and he sits and repeats ..." So, unfortunately people uninitiated, they do not know that for enjoying the power, the strength of life that Krishna, who is sitting alone in a room and repeats the name of Krishna, is going through an order of magnitude greater. On order! The even James Bond, which is super-Mercedes overtakes any robber. By the force, coloration, saturation of life, in its fullness it an order of magnitude stronger!

Many simply do not understand it, but that's their problem ...

Nevertheless, the focus on this subject - is one step.

In the future, the next stage begins. This is when the mind focuses itself on itself. But we must learn to do the consciousness that it can be like.

Student: How?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: To find out what it can be like is the next process ...


This is the mirror of the mind, which is only one wave (for example, Lord Krishna or Lord Shiva or earthenware mug, or anything else, but only one idea). Ordinary people there are billions of waves, so the light of consciousness simply dissolved, is sprayed. And there is only one wave. And she, like a lens, concentrating the rays of consciousness. In such a condition is advanced Krishna, who has long engaged. But more may come a time when this last wave disappears and remains only a surface of the lake, smooth surface of the mind. There is nothing. Our "I" can direct the mind in any direction, but it is, in principle, can not understand that it can be directed inward, it does not have even a clue to such an action, so to speak. And in that moment, when the mind is sharpened when removed all thoughts except one, and then this last thought is removed, in a split second consciousness sees a reflection of himself and realizes: "But you can watch not only the outside can look not only in the mind, but in ourselves in the eye. "

Since then, the mind is absorbed by itself. This is a very deep samadhi, ecstasy is very deep, very deep concentration.

So to take the first step, you need a sharp mind, but in the future it is no longer a need. As soon as the mind realizes that you can look the other way, all the mirrors do not need!

There is a very beautiful legend, or a parable, repeated often enough. Once the cub got into a herd of cows, and spent his whole life among them. He thought he was a cow eating grass, while another lion accidentally saw a lion among the cows. He was very surprised, asked him: "Do you know who you are?" He replied: "Yes! I am the lamb." After that, an adult lion called out to the lake, "Look at your reflection." Young lion looked at his reflection, he saw that he really became a lion and a lion. More he did not need to look into the lake, to always remember that he is a lion.

So it is our mind. By and large, the entire evolution of his aims, that at one point, our "I" looked at him in the mirror. And seeing itself as in a mirror, to understand who they are, in the future it can throw a mirror. In the future, "I" no longer enjoys the mind. Everything: the evolution of the mind function is fulfilled! We can safely throw it away.

After this comes, as stated in the commentary of Vyasa, "unconscious." It will not fit the term!

This is not the unconscious - is sverhoznatelnoe state of mind!

Unconscious - a stupid cow when intoxicated, is the level of Tamas.

Student: Well, yes, of course!

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This level of clarity. And so marginal that the mind is no longer needed!

Disciple: Just mind can bring to this state?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Absolutely! He gently leads to "I" looked into it at least once, as in a mirror, which later can be used, and can be discarded.

Student: But it can be done only when there will be a thought, and then do not be thinking? Thoughts automatically draw the consciousness not look inward and outward?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Absolutely right! When there is a thought, even one thought - the god Shiva and the god Krishna, the mind is still looking outside, it does not look at itself. But this method is that in the future come to look at itself.

That this is the meaning of all religions!

When we call the temple to honor Jesus Christ, our Lord and Savior, or if we are in Papua New Guinea, where we are called to pray to some local cannibal as the embodiment of all the Heavenly Powers, then call us only one thing, in terms of Patanjali yoga: to the thought of Jesus Christ or some other ideal eventually took all our minds that there was nothing except the idea. To our mind in the mirror remained only one wave, one thought.

Disciple: How then this one thought is removed?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Let's talk later. Let's talk ... That's a good question, serious. I will not get ahead of ourselves yet.

So, the next aphorism that you have read, it says about this condition: when the mind perceives itself, without the need for a mirror of the mind. The mind is no longer needed, he worked his. And in this sense it can be called a general lack of concentration!

Student: Why ?!

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, because the external observer does not see the difference! Because the rays of consciousness beyond our world, we are unable to somehow grab. And when human consciousness is turned into itself, like a man disappeared from this world.

In any case, none of the professor or one external expert never will not tell you whether this person's consciousness has absorbed itself or he simply died. Its like as not. It follows that such a concentration and not.

It seems like a concentration has disappeared, and consciousness disappeared. Because if earlier it somehow forced to move our minds as something we could fix the activity of consciousness, but now everything no criterion to determine that there is consciousness in general.

So the thing is, in principle unprovable.

If you say: "I have been in America," you will say, "Yes, and prove it!" You polezesh in your pocket and get at some object, which, for example, sold only in the United States. Suppose you George W. Bush gave a pen. Or are there any other evidence that you've been in America. You can always find such evidence, which are more or less satisfied all skeptics.

You say, "If you do not believe me, ask the US ambassador, he saw me there What does he lie.?" Someone will go, ask someone say, confirms ... That is always possible to find some points to prove.

And here you have visited in the area, from which you can not bring any one thing, because he is the world above it all. And for this reason, when asked, "Do you believe in religion or not?" When you are asked to prove religion is the biggest proof is the final proof you never get from anyone.

You can only experience itself this experience! This is a fundamental point!

Whatever razveliky, rasprekrasny saint, but this state, when the mind is absorbed by itself, he'll be able to prove. Just can not!

He can not bring back a single subject. Or rather ... I am here, probably a little dissemble. He then can bring the state of something.

Where is the difference if a person drank, and lay like a corpse, and he was in samadhi? The only criterion is that the person had been there - it is a changed life. From this point on, if he remained alive (there are cases when a person's consciousness is self-absorbed in, a person decides: why me back to come back I have worked in this world that could I do here is nothing more and if it?.. no motivation to return to help others - the only motivation iz-za which he can return, the longer no one. absolutely! You did not lead astray by anything in the world. the only iz-za that he may return - to help other beings to pass the same stage.

So, if he comes back, that person changes. It suddenly begins to be felt. People are starting to feel a very great strength, wisdom behind it. He apparently does not stand out and behaves "like everyone else", but his every act is filled with some not fully understood the meaning, then there is something "beyond".

And usually around involuntarily begin to gather people, because they feel it is something beyond, something that goes beyond the normal experience of people. This is the only point of attraction of students to the teacher. This is the only thing that syazyvaet them, because students feel this something beyond the teacher intuitively. More precisely, their own consciousness, as it were nemnohko resonates and finds the same response.

What connects teacher and student? By and large, only this: the student a sense of direction, but it does not materially expressed.

Student: No direct evidence?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. No certificate or other paper not svlyayutsya dokzatelstvom that this man really is the teacher, and that - no.

From time to time there are people who are beginning to ask a serious question of legitimacy. "Hi gurus, prove to me that you - the guru, and not rascal, and I'll listen and decide if I will learn from you, or I will not." This is a very good natural question. In fact, if you someone is any guide, you still have to think five times, and to learn whether this person. That is, it must be proved.

But you have to look the truth in the eyes of objective evidence in terms of our usual life you do not get. By and large the evidence you can bring your own "I". If you feel intuitively the teacher in person, it will be the greatest proof. All inquiries, regalia, the title "Holy", by and large, are not evidence. Because it can be faked. This is not to say whether the holy man. If you see a drunk once in a ditch saint with a girl of easy virtue, it can be as a great saint and scoundrel. And you can just tell your "I" - nothing more.

On the other hand, you can come and witness the guru who will fly through the air. But if your "I" says, "It's not that" - even if it flies in the sky, like a jet plane, it is not absolute proof of the moment. But we digress ...

So, from this moment, that is, if a person experiences a state when the mind is absorbed by itself, to the outside observer, this condition is equivalent to as if he was in an unconscious state. In this context, the term "unconscious", which is shown here, in principle, correct.

Student: To the outside observer?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. To the outside observer. But for a man who knows the steps, I would call it super-conscious state, to distinguish it from the state in which a drunk drunkard fell by drinking a bottle of vodka.

Student: That is a marginal activity of consciousness?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes; if profligate ultimate passivity, when the mind does not work, the holy mind also does not work, but it's marginal activity, which led to the fact that the mind is no longer needed, he had his trabotal. If the first has not yet started to use it, the second is already used it and threw.

In this sense, if you meet such statements in the books as "kill your mind," "destroy his thoughts" - what to the uninitiated produces a painful impression, you have to get it right. You do not call to be mad idiot, brainless, and call to mind ottachit maximum shine, look at him once and then throw it away, because it is you no longer need. This is a very high bar.

Thus, the concentration of consciousness is of two stages: the object and no object.

Then go!

19. [The unconscious focus], due to the existence, [it is] in disembodied and dissolved into the root cause of [the creatures].

Vyasa Comment: I disembodied gods [unconscious concentration] is due to the form of existence. They feel like state of absolute isolation, being endowed with consciousness, using only their own Sanskar, [ie forming factors], and then move them to the appropriate type of form of existence, [when] they bring Sanskar rezultat.Tak same and those dissolved in root cause, feel-like state of absolute isolation in which their consciousness is not yet implemented its task remains dissolved in the root cause. [And so] it lasts as long as the consciousness of [not yet done] Problem 2 does not come back again [in the cycle of existence].

Comment Vivekananda ". When samadhi is not accompanied by a complete rejection of all attachments, it becomes a cause of new manifestations of the gods and those who merged with nature In Hindu mythology, the gods are located at different levels of the hierarchy, occupied successively by different souls, however, none of the gods is not perfect." .

20. Other [beings unconscious concentration] is preceded by faith, energy, mindfulness, meditation and wisdom 1.

Vyasa Comment: For yogis condition [achieve unconscious concentration] is the method. Faith is mental clarity, because it protects the yogi, like a caring mother. We possessing [such] faith, and whose aim is to [gaining the ability to] distinguish arises energy. With increasing energy he has the [ability] remembrance 2, [that is, stable retention of an object in memory], the presence of mindfulness and equanimity attains consciousness becomes concentrated. He who has a concentrated mind, there is a distinguishing wisdom with which he learns the true nature of veschey.Blagodarya use of these [means], and dispassion as [posited] goals and there unconscious concentration 3.This yogis depending on [used] method - mild, medium or intense - constitute nine [classes]. Thus, [the yogis different practitioners] "soft" method, average method and intensive method. Of these, those who use a "soft" method, also [divided] into three types: [endowed] weak aspiration, secondary aspiration and strong aspiration 4. Likewise, [the same division exists] among those who use the method of mild, so and among those who use intensive metod.Sredi those who use intensive method, and Commentary Vivekananda: "Some reach this samadhi faith, diligence, memory, concentration and the ability to distinguish between true We are talking about those who are not striving to become gods or even. masters of world cycles, they attain liberation. "

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: When there is a state of superconscious concentration, there are two variants of it: when we rely on an object, and we do not rely on the object.

When we rely on the object, it can be, for example, a particular deity, and we get all of the properties that it possesses the Divine, we become this Divine, but it is not the ultimate enlightenment.

It is only a state of concentration, which is not an object or phenomenon, even subtle, with attributes, leads us finally to enlightenment.

Focusing on high Deity - is the next step, it's not a white spot. But our task - the final liberation, that is, to focus on himself.

Intermediate states may be that when we focus on a particular Deity. This is of great benefit, than we would have focused, for example, on a mug.

Focusing on a particular Deity, we gradually gain its properties, we become Him. And then we come to the next step, when we will be focusing on the consciousness, devoid of object. If we stay at the level of the Divine, we will not achieve enlightenment. This level is very high, but still relative.

There is another approach, a very fast ...

On the question of the Faith. "Faith, energy, mindfulness, meditation and wisdom."

The notion of Faith is very difficult, but if we have this ability, the energy involved in it. As a result - strengthening our memory and distinguishing ability appears to be one, and that is another. And we begin to separate what is "I," and that "I" is not. And separating what our "I" is not, you can focus on the true "I" and thus to achieve the final result.

21. endowed with a strong aspiration [concentration] - in the immediate vicinity.

Comment Vyasa: [This type of yogis] attainment of concentration and fruit concentration occurs [quickly].

22. But in this case, too, [there is] a difference because of the weakness, or moderate intensity [aspirations].

Comment Vyasa: [There is] a weak form of the strong [aspirations], a mild form of the strong [aspiration] and intensive form of strong [aspiration]. Therefore [even among yogis endowed with strong aspiration], and [there is] a difference. Due to this difference to achieve concentration and fruit concentration [very] close to [Yogi], which has a mild form of the strong aspiration, even closer it is to [Yogi], which has an average form strong aspiration, but is most closely [it is for the yogi], which is endowed with intensive form of the strong aspiration and follows intensive method.

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: These two aphorisms that you have read, say, firstly, how fast this state can be achieved.

Scientist: And as yoga answer this question?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yoga is said that the speed of achievement depends on your aspirations. The stronger aspire, so get faster.

The second point that needs to be understood here, is not there some kind of abstraction. The states where there is only one thought in my head, or none at all - this is a very specific and very real condition.

Student: In what respect?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Firstly, if they begin to appear, you should not be confused with what you have.

Secondly, you can not sit down - and simulate about this condition. The word "imitation" indicates the presence of other thoughts.

When you come into contact with this experience, you're it with anything not mistake (it's like sex: orgasm with nothing not mix). I do not know how it is appropriate to such a comparison ... By the way, one advanced yogi who woke at Kundalini, my question is, what if this feeling and how he realized that this is it, said that it was like an orgasm with nothing do not be confused.

So, it is quite specific sensations, and they must achieve. They are achieved, depending on whether you aspirations.

Aspiration is partly conditioned by karma. Are you in a previous life it was engaged, where you stopped, respectively, from the same moment of start in life.

On the other hand, it means nothing. Even if you do nothing worked, and your karma manifested itself in this life that you got involved in this teaching, you are in one lifetime you can achieve this.

So the question is in the power of aspiration. And here it is given a certain classification ...

Student: Why do we need such a detailed classification?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: I think because practicing yogis are very small in percentage terms with other people, but, nevertheless, enough. And to you then one size fits all is not let, facing in the future with people, you can determine for yourself how strong involvement.

All of them do yoga, but with varying degrees of intensity, at different speeds.

23. Or [the concentration achieved] as a result of reliance on the Iswara 1.

Comment Vyasa: Due Hope 2, that is a special form of bhakti, [or undivided love], Iswara inclined [to the yogi], he delights in it because of the mere longing [yogi to the god]. Also in the yogi as a result of a passionate desire to Ishvara achievement of concentration and the fetus becomes closest 3.Itak, who is one of the root causes and great Purusha, who is called "Ishvara"?

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: This is an important aphorism because of where yoga is among the teachings of other world religions and how does it compare with, say, Buddhism or any other religion abstract.

This aphorism Patanjali when classified his yoga, made it clear that the yoga system recognizes the presence of the Creator, or God. Here he performs under the name Ishvara. The meaning of the aphorism that it is a state of concentration very easily achieved with the help of hope in Iswara, devotion to God. This is what later evolved into Bhakti yoga.

Further aphorisms explain what Patanjali means by God.

The more we focus on God, the less remains of other thoughts in mind.

Is directly proportional to our commitment to reducing the number of thought-forms.

24. Ishwara is a special Purusha, untouched by affects, karma, [it] and maturation [hidden] "traces."

Comment Vyasa: Affects - is ignorance and so on. Karma - good and bad actions. Maturation - the fruit of them. Hidden traces - 1 unconscious impressions left by these [actions] .i [all of] them, existing only in the mind, are attributed to Purusha, because he is the one who enjoys their fruit. It is just as victory or defeat, depending on the participants in the battle, are attributed to their master. Those who are not affected by this experience, and there is Iswara, that is a special Purusha.- But in this case there are many kevalinov, [that is released], reached the state of absolute isolation 2.- In fact, they have acquired a state of absolute isolation, breaking triple 3. The tie-Iswara, however, [ever] was not associated with the [state] in the past and will not be linked in the future. Although depending on the limit last release may be known, in the case of Iswara is not. And if you can limit the future according to "dissolved into the root cause," then it is not Ishvara. He - always free, always - Iswara 4! - Is there credible evidence that the eternal supremacy of Isvara, due to the fact that it has the highest entity, or such evidence is not? - His credible evidence - sacred texts 5. - But in this case, which is a reliable basis of sacred texts - Their basis - the highest in nature [Isvara]. Since both the scriptures and the [eternal] superiority ryadopolozhny highest essence of Ishvara, their relationship has no beginning in vremeni.Otsyuda follows that He - always Iswara, always free. And it is His supreme power has nothing to an equal or superior. First of all, it can not be surpassed by other higher power, for if there is something that transcends it, it would be his own. Therefore, the one in whom the power upper limit is implemented, there is Iswara. There are also other higher power, equal emu.- Why - When two equal [talk about] the same desired object: "Let it become the new" and "Let it be old", when the success of a boundless will of another faced with opposition, and it will appear below. In addition, it is impossible to obtain the same desired object in two equal [in strength actors] at the same time, because it is contrary to smyslu.Sledovatelno, whoever has the higher power that has no equal or superior to it, and there Iswara. He, [as it is written in the sutra], - special Purusha.I more ...

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: What is the difference between the individual Purusha and Iswara?

Purusha man shackled by karma, ignorance, attachment to the body, in other words, due to human Purusha.

And God, as defined by Patanjali, originally was never bound or karma, or ignorance, is always free, "I", nothing unaffected.

Next come the comments of Vyasa, who, anticipating any questions, begins to analyze.

If Isvara is initially free, but man - it's the same Purusha only due, and if over time the practice of yoga this Purusha is free, whether it will be Iswara?

Conclusion Vyasa is: no matter how liberated Purusha, he did not reach the Ishwara.

From this point of view I do not agree, in particular, our yoga school. The final liberation - this is when there is no difference between Ishwara and "I", they merge. More precisely, we remember who we are in fact, because we are not individuals, and different manifestations of His personality. Individuality is an illusion.

By the way, even in the Upanishads the question that if the face two or yoga sage, who among them will win, said: Win one who is closer to the First Cause, Ishvara.

25. The seed of omniscience it has no equal.

Comment Vyasa: supersensible knowledge of the past, the future, [or] present individually, [or] with that [developed] a greater or lesser degree, is the seed of omniscience 1. One in whom [the seed], continuously increasing, can not be surpassed, [called] vseznayuschim.Suschestvuet achieving higher limit for the seed of omniscience, because it [different serial] step increase, as is the case [sequential increase] size. One in whom [realized] the possession of the highest limit of knowledge, there is the All-Knowing. He - a special exhaust Purusha.Umozaklyuchenie [its probative value] in removing only the general, and [it] is useless if specific knowledge; therefore the true knowledge of His name and other features to be found in the Agamas 2.Hotya [Isvara] no benefit for himself 3, its purpose - to benefit living beings: "With the destruction of kalpa and great destructions of the universe 4 instruction in knowledge and dharma I stand by [all living things] being involved in the cycle of existence. " And, accordingly, it was said: "The first wise man, who took the creative form of consciousness, Bhagavan, the highest Rishis of the [infinite] set forth the doctrine of compassion Asuri and dreams find [it]" 5.On this [Isvara]

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: So, Patanjali defined Ishvara as a special "I", a special person, unaffected by karma, which manages all of this world, but is not itself involved in that world.

And in the continuation said that Isvara has this special knowledge. This teacher of teachers.

You can learn directly from the Ishwara, but you should not share: Iswara manifested through man, Teacher, and you did have to perceive it. If you see the divine, the divine and you get when you see the earth, then get together with the divine and the earthly another. What concentrating, and then perceive. Then go!

Student reads:

Vyasa Comment: It is this [Isvara]

26. The teacher also old, because he has no time difference.

Vyasa Comment: And the ancient teachers differ in the time [of its existence], but He to whom time characteristics 1 inapplicable, is a teacher and also the ancient [sages]. Just as He is perfect for the absolute form of existence at the beginning of the creation, just as it should be seen, and at the start of the last creations.

Student: Why in the comments of Vyasa so many words about the Masters? It was the Vedas were sacred texts, which are passed on the experience of the ancient sages passed and consciousness and energy. Reading these texts, you got the result. What is the difference between today and the time?

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: Because then it worked. They subconsciously did not cause misunderstandings. In the future, no longer understand the meaning of the Vedas, and their strength was gone. Then go.

27. His [verbal] expression - the sacred syllable Om 1.

Comment Vyasa: Ishvara - that is indicated by the sacred syllable Om. - Is this connection referred to, and referred to as [the result of] a conditional agreement, or whether it is unchanged, such as [link] between the lamp and the light - This link indicating a referent is unchanged, and a conditional agreement concerning [designate] Ishvara and is a constant ratio 2. For example, the constant relation between father and son only brightens ordinary usage of words: "it's his father," "it's his son." Similarly, in other [periods] creations 3 conditional agreement adopted exactly, depending on the function and indicating the designated. Learned in the Agamas 4 argue that the link between the word and [denoted them] object in view is eternal eternity soglasheniya.Yogin that befell [us] designated and indicating, [with the need to practice]

Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: I would like to congratulate you: in the "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali all science Mantra Yoga is represented here this one aphorism.

More about Mantra-yoga it does not say anything.

Disciple: The only mantra is given?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, we are given the only mantra and here is the explanation.

For this reason, when we read "Yoga Sutra" of Patanjali, we must remember that this is not the essence of a systematic presentation of yoga and different yogas. This concise sketches, sketches, aphorisms.

Nevertheless, Patanjali as one of the methods to achieve sverhsosredotocheniya, super-conscious state of mind, or - in the future - that, as it is beautiful say the knower, knowledge and cognition merge into one, that is, the rays of our consciousness as if looking at itself .

So, this can be achieved by the recitation (or recurrence) of the mantra. Mantra "Om". Yes, Patanjali leads one mantra - the mantra "OM".

Mantra Yoga eventually grant final liberation.

There are methods that are granted final release, and there are methods that are not granted final release, but raised to a very large step. Mantra-yoga - of the yoga practices that grant itself the final liberation, even if you do nothing you will not do, and you will indeed sing this sweet "Om" from morning to evening - as a mantra to practice.

Student: It says here that Isvara, God, in his essence is inseparable from the vibration of the syllable OM.

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is in the comments of Vyasa, when Vyasa tried to comment on all this, and to present the concept that there is no difference between the deity and the mantra of the deity itself.

If you remember, we talked about this topic before our seminars on Mantra-Yoga. It appeals to a difficult to understand science as Mantra Vidya, in addition to its position, that every thing has its own mantra, if you like, its name, and all the words originally came to refer to those or other subjects of the mantras of a subject but then began to add some allegorical expression ...

For example, in the old days were beasts, which are afraid to call by name, because as soon as the "mention of the impure - he immediately showed up." We have heard echoes of archaic phenomenon. Beast is not referred to directly, and tried to call metaphorically. As a result, this has led to the displacement of the tongue and the tongue moved away from the original mantras. But each object has its own name, given to him only.

Disciple: But then another question: if in different languages is the same, but it sounds very different, as the same is something to be?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: The answer to this question will not be able to quickly, without getting involved in mantra-vidiyu. The fact is that we need a vibration, and we remember that the vibration consists of 4 incarnations, one begets another: a couple pashianti, manthyama vaikhari and - according to the degree of vibration compaction.

And at some level, a vibration is simply replaced by a similar or completely different, but initially there is the same for all people. This is based on the property to understand the language of animals, birds and people of other nationalities, even if you do not know a particular dialect.

So, Vyasa about trying the same thing and are set out: there is no difference between the word "Om" and God. That is the word "Om" - is the mantra of God. Speaking the word "Om", you reproduces an image or symbol of Ishvara in his mind. There is only one wave, one thought.

Here you have many, many thoughts, you said: "OM" - and it is as if drowned all the others. Temporarily. Again the thought came running, came running - you go again, "Om" said, and they all again muted. And if you are constantly repeating "Om", the other thoughts simply do not appear. But this perpetual "OM" you and sounds.

In India, they say, there are still wandering ascetics, who are likely to appear to have reached the high spiritual results. And the only thing they say - "OM". All! They are no words do not talk anymore. Anything ask - he will always respond to you "OM". From morning till night he just deals with the fact that repeats this sweet syllable "Om."

We must understand that "OM" - it is in our transliteration. It can be pronounced differently. Rather, it is even "AOUM". It's like a rolling vowels, vowels all possible shades, without the intervention of articulation. "A-O-Y-M". We have also discussed this issue, you can access our records. Then we go!

28. its recitation and focusing on its site.

Comment Vyasa: [Means] recitation of the sacred syllable Om and concentration on Isvara 1 denoting the sacred syllable Om. At the yogi, constantly repeating the sacred syllable Om and focused on its object, the mind becomes concentrated at one point. In this connection, it was said: "With the recitation of mantras, let it abide in yoga, that he contemplates through yoga [mantra], because when you reach perfection in the recitation of mantras and yoga shines Supreme Atman" 2. What else is going on with this [Yogi]?

29. Hence - the comprehension of the true nature of consciousness, as well as the removal of obstacles.

Vyasa Comment: What would it have been any obstacles - and other diseases - all of them cease to exist as a result of reliance on the Ishwara; he [Yogi], there is also a vision of its own essence. Just as Iswara is pure Purusha [does] not turbidity, completely isolated, deprived [existential] characteristics 1, this [Yogi] comes to understand that he also is Purusha, reflecting the [content] buddhi.Dalee. What are the obstacles that make the mind distracted? What are they and how many?

Comments Vadim Zaporozhtseva: 29th aphorism - is a continuation of the previous aphorism of recitation or repetition of the word "OM". As we have said, here on this and it ends with presentation of Mantra-Yoga.

Once again, let's repeat the theory.

There are different methods to achieve the concentration of fruit and concentration - the final release. And one of these methods - repetition of the word "OM". After the great-great reps there comes a time when all thoughts dissolve, fade, is just one idea, and then it disappears, too.

In fact, it is - a classic principle on which Mantra Yoga is built. For this reason, Mantra Yoga works. It works in terms of final liberation - not in terms of achieving some utilitarian purposes. After all, Mantra Yoga is increasingly become popular, because if there is any goal, any desire or some point that we would like to perform or carry out, the repetition of a mantra can be fast enough to achieve this. But this achievement of a state (even if very high, even if it solves all our problems), this success is relative.

And here, in addition, it has said that the mantra yoga techniques can be achieved, and the final release.

Disciple: How Mantra Yoga work?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: We are repeating a particular mantra is liberated in the course of 2-3.

The first step - this is when all distractions disappear our thoughts and in my head spins only one mantra, that is a mirror of our mind - is just one wave, one thought.

The second step - it is going beyond even this single thought, generated by repeating the mantra "OM".

Here, in fact, from the perspective of yoga of Patanjali, the rationale of how mantra works.

Student: So, here concentrating method described? It turns out, as the repetition of any one mantra you first is 10 thousand. Thoughts, then 8 thousand. Thoughts. Their number decreases, the energy, which was closed at the thought redistributed by focusing on the mantra. Here it is what is meant?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Absolutely! In order to achieve the concentration, you can use different methods. In the future, Patanjali will explain what concentration.

Concentration - the concentration is the essence of thought is the essence of the abbreviation "jumping" of consciousness.

When we "jumps" a lot (from one thought to another, a third, a fifth, a tenth, at a twentieth, that is, our mind is like a monkey: back and forth, back and forth jumping, and makes billions of hops per second ), it is consciousness called diffuse.

When we do not allow our attention - that's another property, very strong, and we now proceed to study it ... If our attention is focused on something, then there is sent out.

Consciousness and attention - two very serious things. If consciousness slips if it absently on a lot of thought, we are dispersed. If these thoughts are less and less, or have dominant, some basic idea around which our consciousness jumps, our attention, then our state is called focused.

Mantra-Yoga method and allows you to concentrate.

Let's go further, because we have already discussed.


Vyasa Comment: Next. What are the obstacles that make the mind distracted? What are they and how many?

Vadim Zaporozhtsev: So why, in fact there is such a thing as the allocated consciousness.

Student reads ...


Chapter I

About the concentration (SAMADHIPADA)

* This brazier-sloka (introductory verse religious and methodological), the authorship of which is ascribed to the orthodox tradition commentator "Yoga Sutras" Vyasa, is a later interpolation, connected, apparently, with the identification of the creator of "Yoga Sutras" with ancient Indian grammarian Patanjali (III-II cent. BC. e.), who wrote "The Great comment" ( "Mahabhashya") to the sutras of Panini. According to the Brahmanical traditions, the grammarian Patanjali is the epitome of a mythical serpent Sesa, who dropped to his hands folded (patanjali) great panini. See .: [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 54-55].

1.1. The sutra text here atha. According to Vyasa, and the author of "Tattva-vaysharadi" (Commentary on "Vyasa bhasya") Vacaspati Misra, the first word sutra «atha» serves as an indication that further begins a systematic presentation of the subject, in this case, Yoga Darshan, t. E. The religious -filosofskoy yoga system. It is interesting to note that in the same way and starts "Mahabhashya" Patanjali: atha SabdanuSasanam - "So, the presentation [teachings] of the Word."

1.2. According to the interpretation Vacaspati Mishra, the word "summary» (anuSasana) Vyasa here calls sastra (treatise logical-discursive), explaining its etymology as that by which something gets a detailed explanation (anusisyate). Next Vacaspati Mishra says, "Her comprehension was not preceded by a full possession of sedation (Sama), self-control (dama), etc. On the contrary, it is preceded by the desire to convey the knowledge of true reality (tattvajnana)... [Sedation (calm), self-control and so on are achieved] in the presence of the desire to know and knowledge [of reality], as mentioned in the scriptures: "Therefore let him, quiet, under control [senses], become dispassionate, calm and self-absorbed ( samahita), see (behold) atman in the atman alone "(Brih.-up. IV. 4, 23, 28). And although there is a possibility that the student questions, austerity (tapas), the use of alchemy (rasayana), and so on. D. [Sometimes] immediately precede the [statement of sastra], here they are not mentioned (nabhidhanam), because they are useless [how] to a clear comprehension of [the subject] pupil, and for his vital functions (pravrtti) »[TV I. 1, p.1]

1.3. The Sanskrit text yogah samadhih. Here Vyasa interprets the word "yoga" in the terminological meaning of mental concentration, following the traditional understanding of the verbal root: yuj samadhau. (On the interpretation adopted by the root yuj see details. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, pp. 226-227].) However, as can be seen from the following comment text, the volume and content of these concepts are not identical and the only thing overlap. Focusing «(samadhi), according to Vyasa, there is a basic property of consciousness, its a natural feature, which manifests itself in varying degrees at all levels of its operation.

1.4. The Sanskrit text from sarvabhaumah bhunu (letters. "Level" or "level"). The psychology of yoga that keyword (term) the qualitative and a certain state of consciousness, deterministic corresponding emotional tone sensual and informative setting.

1.5. Kfipta - traditional interpretation: scattered, restless. According to the commentary Vacaspati Mishra, the level or state of consciousness that is dominated by the energy component (rajas), characterized by a spontaneous oriented to external objects. But this is not what whatever stability (asthiram) consciousness.

1.6. Mudha (literally "blinded", "are confused, bewildered.") This level, when inertia prevails component (tamas), - snovidnoe state of consciousness (nidravrttimat); in this case it is in its deployed nerazlichayuschey illogical. Such a consciousness as it is directed to all of the objects at the same time, and although the focus of this can be sustained (sthiram), it lacks the ability of discernment (viveka).

1.7. Viksipta (letters. "Scattered", "scattered"). Such a state of consciousness can be defined as The election (opt) object from a manifold with a relatively stable orientation. However, the focus at this level is constantly interrupted due to the current process of electing the object (viksepana): one object is replaced by another entity without the desire to fix the mind on the selected object. According to traditional commentaries "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali, the presence of such a desire and acts as a prerequisite for mental cultivation (bhavana) and the transition of consciousness to the actual yoga (yogapaksa). For comparison it is interesting to note that in the Buddhist (abhidhar-tremist) viksipta Psychology term refers to any condition of empirical consciousness, not being in a state of concentration, or termination of reproduction of its actual contents. See. [AKB I. II].

1.8. Ekdgra (letters. "[Focus] at one point," or "one-pointedness"). Citta-ekagrata - a state of consciousness in which there is a "flashing" of the object (pradyotana), as it exists in reality itself (sadbhuta). Achieving this- state is realized by overcoming viksepana process, ie. E. The spontaneous selectivity, which takes place at the previous, neyogicheskom viksipta level of consciousness. Ekagrata is characterized by a stable orientation of consciousness in a single point. Selectivity thus reaches its limit, but it is devoid of affective way komponenta.Shodnym pointedness of consciousness and interpreted in Buddhist psychology. Thus, Asanga says: "What is the focus? - This one-pointedness of mind on the object that needs to be investigated. This is the one-pointedness support knowledge »[AS, p. 111]. Sthiramati gives a more detailed definition: "Concentration - a concentration on the subject matter that should be investigated. The object should be considered in the wholeness of its properties. Unidirectionality means having a field of view of only one object. It serves as a support for knowledge, for a concentrated mind sees things as they really are. " See. [VMS, p. 26].

1.9. Niruddha (letters. "Terminated", "stopped"). The term nirodha ( "termination", "stop") refers to a state of consciousness, stopped on itself, and in this sense, this level of consciousness can be described as the cessation of its deployment (vrtti). According to Indian religious and philosophical systems, in nirodha state eliminated any whatsoever cognitive acts and their content, as well as emotionally colored motivation violating psycho- balance soznaniya.V historical and philosophically interesting to note that in Buddhist psychology nirodha - the absolute, that is, . e. cause and unconditioned dharma (qualitatively certain state of consciousness), which characterizes the space along with the mental experience (akasa) disidentification state of consciousness. See. [AKB I. 5-6].

1.10. Yogapaksa - region (literally "party".) [Actually] yoga. As noted in this regard A.Vetsler "sequence is not only ksipta and mudha, but also all the three states (bhumi), do not belong to yogapaksa, due to the degree of coupling strength between citta and visaya (object) or a potential target. This relationship is the least weakened, ie, the most durable when citta is in ksepa state..; it is weaker when the citta - able mudha, and weakest when the citta - in viksipta state; connection in this case (because of "impartiality» citta) is so weakened now that citta can be intentionally directed to the object chosen subject. It was at this point and starts the actual yoga. " See. [Wezler, 1983, p. 23].

1.11. Klesah (. The letters "torture", "pain") by klis verb - cause pain, anguish; delivering concern; result in disturbance (excited) state; zagryaznyat.Klesa - one of the fundamental concepts found in most Indian classical religious and philosophical systems (Nyaya-syncretic Vaisheshika it often corresponds to the term dosa), but most fully developed in Buddhist psychology. The texts of the logical-discursive level this term conveys the dynamics of empirical states of consciousness "ordinary person" .Psihologiya latter is associated with a particular type of personal value orientation, which can be roughly described as "self-centered setting." This backbone to the individual predisposition to perceive the world in direct correlation with his "I". Effect of self-centered disposition is not limited to acts of consciousness and conscious choice in social situations, but also on unconscious mental processes that determine the perception as such. In view of this self-centered person ever sees things as they are outside the subjective orientation. It is because of this fact everyday psychological orientation estimated at the doctrinal level, a focus on samsaric existence, ie. E. As "unwholesome consciousness".In Indological term "Klesha" research is usually translated as "passion" or "pollution" that is, strictly speaking, not quite udovletvoritelno.Peredacha term word "pollution" character for the followers of the so-called philological approach and due to the etymological meaning klis root ( "dirty "" pollute "). However, because of religious and pragmatic orientation of the Indian philosophical systems involves the transformation of consciousness, which includes as a major factor liberation of consciousness from the emotional coloring, the actual emotion is considered in the system not only in the functional aspect as the contamination process, but, above all, meaningful - which is the phenomena of consciousness are subject to influx of emotion, and that this emotion is. The word "pollution" reflects only the functional aspect and therefore transmits the actual semantics "Klesha" term is very incomplete. There are two aspects of the functioning of mixed "unwholesome" ( "negative" from the karmic point of view) of consciousness: his particular condition ( "passion", "dizziness", "hate", etc...) And the general trend of conservation of this state. Both terms are synonymous only in the sense that they describe both the state and the tendency to preserve the "unwholesome" of consciousness to be eliminirovat.Slovo "passion" all the more unsatisfactory, because in the traditional list of mental states have a special term raga, actually indicating passion. Consequently, the transfer of the term "Klesha" with the word "passion" leads to unjustified reduktsii.Soglasno semantic translation methodology developed in the domestic history of philosophy of Buddhist school, the correct transmission of technical terms can be performed only on the basis of a consistent explanation of concepts, in which the technical terms function. The term "Klesha" is the key to the "unwholesome" concept(Self-centered) consciousness. He describes the extremely wide range of conditions both psychophysical and proper mental excitement that occurs when the results of correlation of mental processes with the core illusory personality with the "I". In other words, a flare in the most general form of the adoption of the reaction has a otverzheniya.Operatsionalnoe definition of the fundamental concepts in Buddhist psychology can be found in Asanga: "What is the sign of flares? If excitation occurs dharma is characterized by the property (apraSanta) and its occurrence causes the body and mind (the letters. "Corporal and mental continuum") in the excited state (perturbed) state, it is a sign of flares. " See. [AS, with 46] .Kleshi thus always true indicate the presence of "unwholesome» (akusala) soznaniya.Abhidharmistskie psychologists believed as the cause of the existence flared illusion 'I', m. E. Substantial static psyche. According to the commentary tradition, the source of bottoms never lies in the outside world, because otherwise flares would be characterized by even vysokoprodvinutym followers. Strictly semantic content of the mental processes, ie. E. The reflection of the outside world in the mind, deprived of bell-bottoms. They occur only in the comparison of these contents with the personal "I" -Concept (upadana). Therefore, a flare is a function of unwholesome soznaniya.Na Based on the above, we transfer the term is the word "affect", referring to the wide range of sense (as opposed to a strictly semantic) contents of consciousness. The psychological term "emotion" suggests sensory-effective trend associated with consciousness only indirectly. That is why we chose to stay at the more general concept of "affect" includes within its semantic range of feelings and emotions with a pronounced tinge of causing, because none of the term European psychology, describing the emotional sphere, taken separately, does not cover the full scope and content of a technical term "Klesha" .Kommentator "Yoga sutras" Vyasa, who was under the obvious influence of the logical-discursive schemes abhidharmistskoy philosophy introduces the term "Klesha" as already defined, without exposing it to further development.

1.12. The Sanskrit text karmabandhanani. "Karma" is also a fundamental concept, more precisely, ideologeme (value-colored concept) all darshan of ancient and medieval India, with the exception, perhaps, only Lokayata (Charvakas). In the most general sense, the word "karma" means an act or activity in the broad sense. In yoga, as in Buddhism, there are three kinds of karma: physical or bodily, mental (the activity of consciousness) and verbal. The doctrine of karma is considered in detail by Vyasa in his commentary to the "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali (II. 12-14). Here it is sufficient to note that at the doctrinal level karma system is a law of cause and effect, according to which the shape and type of birth, length of life, social status, and so on. D. Determined by the results of past activities, germinating (vipaka) in this existence .In yoga and Buddhist philosophy are the energy source of the basic activities of flares, often ignorance (avidya). As Sthiramati notes in his comments to one of the fundamental sources vidzhnyanavady, "activity (karma) and affective - that causes the cycle of life, and affects - the main reason. Due to determine the impact affects the activity can give rise to a new existence (punarbhavaksepa), and can not be otherwise. Therefore, a truly affects the root from which it grows samsara. Consequently, cessation of the cycle of life can only be achieved with the elimination of the affects, and can not be otherwise. " See. [TVM, p. 38-39].

1.13. The Sanskrit text samprajnato yoga. We interpret this term conditionally as cognitive (involving a cognitive component) yoga because this stage of purposeful change of consciousness contains at least three of discursive elements that are implemented in the process of working with the object. In terms of psycho-cognitive Yoga corresponds to the level or state of consciousness, which is called cittaikagrata, t. E. Skontsentrirovannost consciousness at one point (cp. Comments. 1.8). At this stage, a comparative study of psycho-yoga systems, and Buddhism is hardly possible to come to their unequivocal identification, but as a first approximation attention is drawn to the fact that at a certain doctrinal-tional specificity (eg, Asmita - a sense of individuation) cognitive yoga, or cognitive focus (samprajnata samadhi), corresponds to the first four steps (dhyana) Buddhist yoga.

1.14. The Sanskrit text vitarkanugato vicaranugata, ie. "... Accompanied by selectivity [and] reflection", or rather, is accompanied by orientation and content. Vitarka and vicara in yogic and Buddhist psychology are fundamental phenomena of consciousness, detectable as the sensual, and the rational (mental) levels. A detailed analysis of the terms contained in the "Encyclopedia of Abhidharma" Vasubandhu (II 28 and 33.) Where vitarka described as "rough" state of consciousness (cittasyaudarikata), a vicara - as "delicate» (suksmata); Wed. Asanga definition as [AS, p. 14J. From the point of view of psychology vitarka consciousness it can be interpreted as a property of "electing" the object more precisely - focus on an object, a vicara - as the subsequent reflection, associated with the fixation of consciousness on the subject, ie, meaningfulness... A detailed analysis of the two terms in the context of the practice of changing states of consciousness see Ref. [Guenther, 1957, p. 74-77], in his now classic monograph on the philosophy of yoga S. Dasgupta, considering the terms and vitarka vicara, limited to a brief comment that they both refer to the state of consciousness in which the object of meditation become more coarse or more subtle forms of objects that can vary from the "great elements» (bhiita) to the most primal (prakrti). See. [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 3401.

1.15. Ananda - following after the pattern (selectivity) and content (reflection), altered state of consciousness, characterized by a feeling of supreme bliss and happiness. Typologically it corresponds states priti and sukha Buddhist psycho scheme. See details. [Guenther, 1957, p. 77-80].

1.16. Asmita - in the ordinary sense, is the key word denotes individuality or rather, a sense of individuation. The ontological system asmita yoga is seen as the first stage of the transformation of the fundamental and all-pervading consciousness (karana citta), which realizes itself through the consciousness-effect (karya citta). Thus, Asmita, along with the ten senses and the corresponding mental faculties, Manas and vitality (Franch) performs initial qualitative certainty, the corollary of consciousness (karya citta) .In the context of psycho procedure in question in the commentary of Vyasa, the term denotes a state Asmita pure being, in which the "I" is in indivisible unity with buddhi (intellect).

1.17. Asamprajnata samadhi. We pass this term conditionally as the non-cognitive, t. E. Lacking the cognitive element concentration. According to Vyasa, it is observed at a complete stop of consciousness, it ceases any form of its activities and remain only unconscious formative factors (samskara). See. [VS I. 18].

2.1. The Sanskrit text yogascittavrttinirodhah. The second sutra of Patanjali gives the classic definition of Brahmanical Yoga, not only adopted in the logical and discursive treatises of religious and philosophical systems, but went down in a series of doctrinal tekstov.Zdes vrtti term refers to the deployment or current state of empirical consciousness, the content of which specific pratyaya act. See details. [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 277].

2.2. In his comments Vacaspati Mishra detail considering this specification the meaning of the sutras, introduced by Vyasa: "That particular state of consciousness in which achieved [complete] termination (the process of true] knowledge (in Sanskrit text should read prama instead Franch), and so on." And there actually yoga.- But in this case we can say that it is defective (alaksana), because it does not cover (avyapakatvat - the letters' due to the lack of distribution ".) cognitive focus, where the mind does not function sattwic prekrascheny.- Therefore [Vyasa ] and said. "Since the word" all "[in sutra] omitted ..." If it meant cessation of all functions of consciousness, cognitive [focus] would not have been included in [this definition] However, the termination of the functioning of consciousness that prevents. sochrevaniyu (vipaka) «dormant» Next (asaya) affectivity and action (karma), and also includes a cognitive focus, since it also occurs cessation of functioning of consciousness, [due to] the energy and inertial components. Therefore, it also means the termination of the functioning of consciousness. This is the meaning [clarification Vyasa] »[TV I. 2, p. 4].

2.3. Vyasa is referring to the ontological concept of Sankhya yoga, according to which inanimate consciousness (in the form of mahat, buddhi, etc...), Is a consequence of the transformation of primordial matter (prakrti), which represents the organic unity of the three modes (modes, or components) - sattva, rajas and tamas. However, all levels of the state or of an active consciousness are also characterized by the presence of an appropriate modusa.Vachaspati Mishra explains the meaning of the comment sentence: "But where in a single consciousness connection with scattered and other levels? And to what purpose should be discontinued activity of consciousness that is in such a state? - These are the [possible] doubt. Anticipating these objections, [Vyasa] explains why the first communication [mind] with all these states »[TV I. 2, p. 4].

2.4. The doctrine of the modes in relation to consciousness only scheduled from Vyasa, is described in detail in "Tattva-vaysharadi". In view of its importance for the understanding of the concept of consciousness in yoga, we give below comment Vacaspati Mishra with some reductions. "Because of the susceptibility [consciousness] to clear (prakhya, clarity) [varies] sattwic modus (sattvaguna); because of the predisposition to activity (pravrtti, activities) - energy, or active, modus (rajoguna); because of the predisposition to preserve [unchanged] state - inertial modus (tamoguna) .Yasnost (prakhya) mentioned (the commentary of Vyasa] to the implication (upalaksanartham), because through it shall also contain other sattwic properties: transparency, lightness, joy, etc. .. n A activity [specified] active properties [psyche] -. pain, suffering, sadness and so d.Sohranenie [unchanged] state, or rest (sthiti), are manifestations of the property of tamas, the opposite active activities through the use of the word "peace. .. ", ie, the state of preservation, are designated severity of the obstruction, helplessness (dainya), etc. [More commentary of Vyasa] we are talking about the following:.. Although consciousness and united, but due to the fact that it is constituted by the three Gunas ( modi or components) and these gunas (always exist] in unequal proportions (vaisamyena), (consciousness is] various modifications (vicitraparmama). due to a variety of mutual contradictions (parasparavi-mardavaicitryat), and remains so in different states. [Vyasa] shows that the scattered and other states of consciousness are characterized depending on the circumstances (yathasambhavam) manifold subordinates (avantara) properties "... in its essence - clear (prakhyarupam) ...». Sattvic mode of consciousness is sattva, transformed into [own] form consciousness (cittarupena parinatam). It was he who in the form of clarity, reveals itself as the predominance of sattva in consciousness (sattvapradhanyam cittasya). When the minds of Rajas and Tamas slightly weaker (kimcidune), than sattva, but the intensity equal to each other (mithah same), then of the mind [in the commentary of Vyasa] and said that he was pleased to dominance (aisvarya) and sense objects (visayah ) - and other sounds. Indeed (khalu), with a predominance of sattva mind tries to focus on the reality (tattva); but because the true reality, as it were enveloped (pihita, shrouded) Tamas, mind imagines (abhimany-amana), the ability to get the same smallest, as the atom (animan), etc. -.. this is the reality, and It tends to concentrate on it. But, concentrating (pranidhatte) at the moment (ksane), it is scattered (ksipyamana) rajas, without reaching stability (alabdhasthiti), even in this; such [an imaginary reality] only becomes something pleasant (priyamatram) [of consciousness]. With regard to the natural inclination (svarasavahl) consciousness to the sounds and other [sense objects], it is well known in ordinary practice. Therefore, for such consciousness and is described as diffuse (viksipta) .If clarification "bound" state (ksipta) [Vyasa] also mentions [the consciousness] in a state of confusion: "It is the same [associated] with Tamas ...". For when Tamas (inertial component), received the predominance of rajas (energy component), begins to increase (prasrtam), then, as rajas is unable to dissipate (samutsarane, expel) Tamas blocking (ava-raka) sattwic mode of consciousness, it is, [consciousness], being permeated (sthagitam, impregnated) tamas, tends "to adharma (t. e. unrighteousness), ignorance (ajflana), and loss of strength neotreshennosti [own]" .Neznanie defined (see para. 1.8), as false knowledge or misleading (viparyaya) and how snovidnoe knowledge (nidrajnana, see. [TV I. 1] objective basis of which is the absence of [foreign] reason (abhavapratyayalambana). Hence [it is clear] why [Vyasa] also mentions the state of consciousness in zameshatelstva.Utrata [own] strength (anaiSvarya) there is an obstacle, opposition to the request (icchapratighata), [manifested] in vsem.Smysl [the above] is that consciousness in such a state permeated (vyaptam) d.No unrighteousness, and so when this same sattwic mode of consciousness comes to the fore (avirbhuta) and sattva dropped when cover is accompanied by tamas rajas, the mind tends to righteousness, knowledge, and renunciation of sovereignty. - as described [in the commentary]: "When dropped [veil of ignorance] ..." - and so on Tamas is ignorance (moha);.. That he is the obstacle, the elimination of which was said [above] .Poetomu [sattwic mode of consciousness] "lights up in its wholeness" special (visesa) and total (avisesa), which is the "only-sign", [ie Mahat the first product of the evolution of the root causes, and that sign is not (aliriga), that is the root cause] and [numerous] purusha. But he still is unable [to implement] the righteousness and sovereignty, because it lacks activity (energy). Therefore [Vyasa] says: "[When he] mingled only energy." Because Rajas has the property of being an active figure (pravarttakatvat), there is righteousness (dharma) and the other - that is the meaning of what »[TV I. 2, p. 4-5] Referring Vacaspati Misra, said about sattwic mode of consciousness refers to two classes of yogis: madhubhumika (. The letters "staying on the sweet stage") and pradzhnyadzhёtisha (. The letters "have stellar wisdom"), - in a state of cognitive concentration. It is from them and accumulates sattwic mode of consciousness. See. [TV I. 2, p. 5].

2.5. Purusa. In the philosophy of Sankhya Yoga, the term refers to one of the two basic principles of the system - the soul, or rather, a multiplicity of souls, along with existing matter (prakrti). Purusha is specified as a principle of pure consciousness, consciousness or energy (citisakti), qualitatively different from the contents of knowledge (buddhi), which is a particular form of evolution Prakrit.

2.6. Details explaining this part of the commentary of Vyasa, Vacaspati Mishra introduces additional realities of the system: "Now he's talking about the state of consciousness of the fourth class of yogis -" which goes beyond what should contemplate »(atikrantabhavamya):« And he's ... "As consciousness released from the smallest impurities of rajas, it is in its own essence (svarupapratistham). Refined pollution Rajas and Tamas by continuous calcination with fire (putapakaprabandhavibhuta), t. E. Through steady practice (abhyasa) and detachment (vairagya), red gold (tapamya) sattvicheskoto mode of understanding (buddhisattva), in which the senses are distracted by [ relevant] sense objects, is in its own essence. But he left that must be fulfilled - discriminating comprehension (vive-kakhyati), which does not stop, as its goal (adhikara) has not dostignuta.Poetomu [Vyasa] says: "Consciousness, [being] a comprehension of differences between sattva and purusha, it tends to dhyana, t. e. the concentration of form, [called] "cloud of dharma." "Cloud of Dharma" will be explained later, "See. [YS IV. 29].

2.7. В санскритском тексте рогат prasamkhyanam. Вачаспати Мишра так разъясняет значение этого термина: «Он, [Вьяса], говорит лишь о том, что известно йогинам:«Ее называют высшей...» Сознание, которое есть не что иное, как постижение различия между саттвой и пурушей, и простирающееся до «Облака дхармы», определяется йогинами как высшее постижение. При стремлении (vivaksaya) не проводить различия между свойством и его носителем (dharmadhanninoh) это [высшее различение] следует рассматривать как имеющее ту же функцию, что и сознание (cittasamanadhikaranyam)» [TV I. 2, с. 5].

2.8. Continuing the description of the conceptual apparatus of yoga, which is the commentary of Vyasa is given virtually no definitions Vacaspati Mishra restores meaning ligament. "In order to enter [the concept of] the concentration at which a stream of consciousness is stopped (nirodhasamadhi) and which serves the cause of eliminating discriminating comprehension (vivekakhyaterhanahetu) and the efficient cause (upadanahetu) [clean] energy of consciousness (citiSakteh), [Vyasa] shows the superiority (sadhutam ) energy, or force, consciousness and subordinate role discriminating comprehension, [saying]: "the strength of the consciousness ..." happiness and suffering, that is ignorance (mohatmaka), in its essence - unclean (aSuddhi), because even happiness or ignorance (stupidity) is a knowledgeable (vivekinah -. literally "the one who distinguishes between") suffering. Similarly, even excellent, which ends (antavat), brings inner suffering (dunoti). Therefore, it must also be eliminated znayuschim.Takoe unclean and there is no end to the power (energy) of consciousness, in Purusha; because [commentary] and said, "... pure and endless ..." - But is [the power of consciousness], to know (in Sanskrit cetayamana text that can be understood as "wanting.") that inherently happiness, misery, ignorance, sounds, and so on. e., does not take the form [of these states or entities] (tadakarapanna)? So why is it "clean"? And why it is "infinite" if it takes them [the form], and discards it (parivarjane ca kurvati)? So [Vyasa] says"... Show the objects themselves (darSitavisayah) himself to her ..." It is determined that because [the net power of consciousness] is what objects -. Sound, etc.-show sebya.- It would be such ( bhavedetadevam), if accepted (apadyeta) form objects like buddhi, [it is the content of consciousness]. However, it is Buddhi, transforming (parinata sati) in the form of objects, "shows (presents)," [such] the power of objects of consciousness, which does not accept its formu.- But did not know that the power is not generated by consciousness (in Sanskrit anarudha text - "is lying") buddhi, taking the form of the object? How did she [comes] the perception of an object? And if she is called to the manifestation of the object (in the Sanskrit text visayarohe - the letters "at the rise of the object."), Then why not take its shape Therefore it is said: "It does not pass (apratisamkrama) [from object to object]?". Transition is the movement (samcara), and in consciousness it is not - that is the meaning of [the above] (-). In consciousness there is also no triple modification (parinama) - qualitative definiteness (the dharma), properties (laksana) and state (avastha), - by which the power of consciousness, transforming itself in the form of (a) the action (kriyariipena), to being modified when connecting to a buddhi »[TV I. 2, p. b].

2.9. Vacaspati Mishra explains: "We know that the energy (power) consciousness is the [supreme] good. As for discriminating comprehension, which by its nature - sattwic modus buddhi, it is not so good - so it is said. Therefore, it is the opposite of [clean] energy of consciousness »[TV I. 2, p. 6].

2.10. "If even a discriminating cognition should be eliminated (heya), what can we say about other phenomena of consciousness? Therefore, the transition (avatara) to concentrate, which stopped functioning consciousness (nirodhasa-madhi), it is well founded (yujyate). So, [commentary] said, "Therefore, consciousness, [turning away from him] ..." This means that there persists even discriminating comprehension through only one uncomplicated clarity of knowledge (jnanaprasadamatra), ie the highest detachment (parena vairagyena).. »[TV 1.2, p. b].

2.11. The Sanskrit text here samskdra. In the Brahmanical religious and philosophical systems, this term refers to latent correlates actual states of consciousness' (vrtti), a kind of "traces" (engram) that exist in the unconscious mental and performing forming factors of new topical contents of consciousness. About the traditional interpretation of the term samskara see. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, p. 263, n. I].

2.12. Vacaspati Mishra explains: "So, what is consciousness, all of which modifications are completely stopped? In this regard, [Vyasa] says about the state (such a consciousness, all of whose manifestations) suspended (nirodha), defining its inner essence (svarupa): «It has no seed» (nirbija). "Dormant" traces of karma (karmasaya) together with the affects (causes] a form of birth (jati), life expectancy (ayur) and type of experience (bhoga), - this is the seed (tnja) Freed from that seed [called] ". deprived of the seed. "For the same [Vyasa concentration] brings a technical term (samjna), a well-known yogis, - [" noncognitive »(asamprajnata)], TE in it nothing is known» [TV I. 2, with . b].

3.1. In the text of the sutra drasfuh - race. case unit. number of drastr (letters. "spectator or observer"), in the system of Patanjali "spectator" -sinonim Purusha. This keyword is in the form of drk found in the "Yoga Sutras" repeatedly (see. [YS II. B, 20, 21 and so on. D .; III. 35], and in some contexts drk ( "viewer") is defined as the energy , empirically indistinguishable from the most primal (prakrti). See., eg, [VB II. b].

3.2. The concept of absolute isolation (kaivalya) Purusha as the energy of the consciousness of Prakriti set out in detail in the fourth chapter of "Yoga Sutras" and the commentary of Vyasa to it.

4.1. The Sanskrit text vyutthane. Usually, in Indian logic-discursive texts that keyword designated recovered consciousness, t. E. The consciousness, began operating after the subject of the state of yogic concentration in which the mind activity was completely "stopped» (niruddha).

4.2. According Vacaspati Misra, author of this sutra is attributed Pancha sikha, which is considered to be a disciple tradition Sankhya Asuri, received instructions directly from Kapila, the mythical founder of the religious and philosophical system. It is interesting to note that in the ancient Indian epic account of the basic principles of Sankhya puts into the mouth Panchashikhi. See. (MCB. XIII, 219). More about Panchashikhe see. [Dagupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, p. 216-219].

4.3. The Sanskrit text svam bhavati, t. E. The consciousness is a fixture of the Purusha, his "property", in relation to which it acts "Lord» (svamin). In accordance with the input metaphor, just as the lord is not identified with his property, and the Purusha (pure energy of consciousness or continuity) is not identified with the discrete content of consciousness (buddhi).

5.1. Five kinds of deployment of consciousness, ie. E. Ways of its manifestation (vrtti), listed by Patanjali in Sutra 1.6.

5.2. The Sanskrit text karmasaya. In the interpretation of S. Dasgupta, karma in the aspect in which it is contained in the buddhi as the mode of its transformation, called karmasaya ( «karmic bed for Purusha"). See. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, p. 267]. It seems that the term typological asaya encodes the same concept as the anusaya abhidharmistskoy psychological tradition. According to Buddhist theorists, affective state (flares) occur either in the active form of the explosive (paryavasthana), or present in the psyche of the individual latent as potentiality. In the latter case, they act as a disposition to certain types of verbal, mental and physical behavior. See. [AKB V. I].

5.3. «Dirty» (klifta) and "uncontaminated» (akiista) - respectively exposed and not susceptible to an influx affects.

5.4. According to the interpretation Vacaspati Misra, "for the individual, the main purpose of which is to implement the intentions of the Purusha, current manifestations of consciousness (vrtti), comprising rajas (energy component) and Tamas (inertial-tion component) are opposing as generate obstacles» [TV I . 5, p. 9].

5.5. As is evident from comments Vacaspati Misra, "pollution" or "uncontaminated" actual manifestations of consciousness in the intervals of his continuous deployment depends on the predominance of Rajas and Tamas over sattva and vice versa. Cm. (TV I. 5, p. 9-10].

5.6. The Sanskrit text vrttisaniskaracakra. The most complete expression of the idea of the interdependence of the actual contents of consciousness and the forming of the factors gets semantic concept abhidharmistskoy philosophy, according to which causal, qualitative and specific mental state (samskrta dharma) is at the same time cause and causes (samskara), t. E. formative factor.

5.7. According to the interpretation Vacaspati Misra, "consciousness by acting in this way, it reaches a state of cessation (nirodha), and when there are only forming factors, it becomes a self-identity (atmakalpenava-tisthata - dwells in its own similarity) - so [is meant] to conventional sense (apatatah). In absolute terms the same (paramarthatah) it comes to Pralaya, [t. e. to dissolve in primordial (prakrti), in the outer end of the cycle! ". See. [TV I. 5, p. 10].

6.1. The Sutra of these activities, more specifically, the characteristics of the actual activity of consciousness entered composite type arthe dvandva samasa (explanation Vacaspati Misra). For convenience, we share this composite into its components: pramana viparyaya vikalpa nidra smrti (smrtayah).

7.1. There sensory perception - pratyaksa. From a comment to this Vyasa Sutra of Patanjali we can conclude that in the classical yoga is accepted, albeit with some refinements, sankhyaistskaya theory of perception. So, Kapila defines perception as discriminating knowledge (vijnana), taking the form of (akara) the object and directly self-related (see section. [SS I. 89]). Vidzhnyanabhikshu refines this definition by saying that perception is a function of (vrtti) buddhi, aimed at the subject and modified by the specific shape of the object to which it is directly related (in detail about the theory of perception in the Sankhya sm. [Sinha, 1934, p. 117 ff. ]).

7.2. "Feeling the effects" - the letters. «Painted» (uparaga by Ch. Uparanj) sensual object.

7.3. Inference (or inference) - apitapa. Learn more about inference in the yoga system, see. [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 273-274], where three types of conclusions stand out: 1) purvavat, ie, from cause to effect, 2) Sesavat - from effect to cause, and 3) samanyatodrsta - construction of inferences on the basis of general similarities...

7.4. The authoritative verbal testimony - agamah; another key word for such a certificate, - dptavacana.

7.5. The Sanskrit text here yasydgamasya ... vaktd. In the interpretation of this phrase comment Vyasa Vacaspati Misra cites two examples show (or rather, kvaziavtoritetnogo statements), untrusted (asraddheya): «These ten pomegranates become six cupcakes (aryra)" and "Let who wants to reach the sky (svargakama) worship sanctuary (caityam ) ". See. [TV I. 7, p. 18].

7.6. The Sanskrit text mulavaktari. According Vacaspati Misra, a "source authority" in this context should be understood personal god-creator (TSvara). See. [TV I. 7, p. 12].

8.1. The sutra viparyaya. Vacaspati Mishra notes! "The word" error "indicates that determined (laksya), [the word]" false knowledge "(mithyajnana) - that stands by its definition (laksana). Knowing reflecting [certain] form actually not based on this form »[TV I. 8, p. 12]. S. Dasgupta says of the specifics of understanding the "error" in the system of yoga: "As viparyaya or psychological illusion, yoga does not believe, in contrast to the Sankhya, the illusion that [the perception of] silver pearl shell (Sukti) is due to the fact that the recall silver indistinguishable from object perception, in this presentation. " See. [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 274].

8.2. The commentary of Vyasa bhutarthavisayatvat.

8.3. The Sanskrit text here avidya'smitardgadvesdbhinivesah klesd. In the literature, the term abhmiveSa usually interpreted as "fear of death", "will to live", "instinctive desire to live." See. [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 68, 296].

8.4. Vacaspati Mishra says: "If one succeeded in the practice of (supernatural] properties, as a reduction to the size of an atom (animan), etc., and if it is linked to the idea obsessed with this kind of capability, observed [everyday life] or described.. [in the scriptures], then the fear that all this will be lost at the end of [space] period, and there is a thirst for life, t. e. the blind darkness »[TV I. 8, p. 13].

9.1. The Sutra of Patanjali: Habdajndiwnupdfi vastusunyo vikalpafy. Based on the explanations in "Tattva-vaysharadi" we pass vastuSunya as "no reference". Regarding the semantics of the term vastu in classical Indian philosophy, logic and interesting observation should lead language K. Potter: "Judgments are considered in Indian thought as bearers of truth-values. The Sanskrit term for the content of judgments - visaya. However, true or false is not the content, but an act of judgment, in which we affirm or deny the relevance of the object corresponding to the content. Visaya - inten Hoc is the object of our thoughts. In Sanskrit there is a way to distinguish this from the actual object intential; the latter is called vastu ». See. [Potter, 1970, p. 17].

9.2. In the original Sanskrit, respectively, present, future and past tense form of the verb root stha (stand).

10.1. S. Dasgupta said: "Dreamless Sleep is also seen here as a state of consciousness in which Tamas prevails over sattva, because after waking the man sees it precisely as a state of consciousness. It is easy to see that this is the opposite of Vedantic doctrine, according to which susupti is not a state of consciousness, because the atman abides while in a state of pure bliss. " See. [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 276].

11.1. The Sanskrit text here svavyanjakahjanati. Philological interpretation of the phrase from the commentary of Vyasa see. [Woods, 1914, p. 31, n. 2], where the two terms are considered - vyanjaka and afljana.

11.2. The Sanskrit text abhdvita. Our translation of the word is based on the interpretation of Vacaspati Mishra: akalpitah paramarthika iti yavat (see [TV I. 11, p. 17].).

11.3. For details on these, see the affects. [YS II. 3-9]. 12.1. S. Dasgupta writes: "These modifications of consciousness (citta) as a pratyaya, or states of consciousness, must, however, be distinguished from other aspects of consciousness that can not be tested directly, as they are the property of consciousness, staying in their own nature. Thus, first of all, you must admit that the mind can be in itself, is not transformed into their own state, even though it was his own existence in nature can never be known. This condition is called nirodha. See. [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 277].

13.1. In the text of the sutra abhyasa.

15.1. The text vairdgya - «dispassion", ie, lack of desire to any objects... In the context of psychology, yoga acts dispassion negative aspect of faith (Sraddha) - Yogi firm belief in the correctness of the chosen path. (For details, see. [Dasgupta, 1920, p. 131]). Through cultivating dispassion mind distracted from sense objects (visaya), which gradually leads to a sustained negative emotional and sensual tone in relation to the profane values. As noted by one of the later commentators "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali, Vijnana Bhikshu, aversion to worldly pleasures is only a different aspect of faith that provides a steady flow of consciousness (cittasamprasada) .In classical texts differ two types of dispassion, or detachment: Arago and para. Apara vairagya characterizes the state of consciousness in which there is no attraction (raga) to any sense objects and purposes (purusartha), prescribed by the Vedic texts, -.. The achievement of the sky (svarga), etc. The psycho-term Arago vairagya includes four stages on the latest of which (vasikara) implemented the ability to direct perception of the futility of any attachment to how whatever external objects or purposes, after which consciousness becomes invulnerable to privyazannosti.Bolee highest kind of dispassion - para vairagya, virtually identical to the end discriminating comprehension (or wisdom - prajna ), leading to absolute independence. Thus, dispassion, faith (sraddha) and practice to achieve them (abhyasa) is a state of consciousness, not subject to an influx of affectivity (akiistavrtti). Their persistent cultivation leads to consistent elimination of all manifestations of affective consciousness (klistavrtti). Through such a procedure, psycho yogi moves higher and higher, until it reaches the end sostoyaniya.Otsyuda can see, S. Dasgupta notes that the practice (abhyasa) and dispassion (vairagya) - two internal means to achieve the ultimate goal of the yogi - the final cessation of all deployments consciousness, passions and ignorance (avidya). See. [Dasgupta, 1920, p. 131-133].

18.1. Nirbija. As Vacaspati Mishra says, "this concentration is called" deprived of seed, "because it is not directed at any object that serves as its support (alambana). According to another interpretation, [lacking seed] - what more there is a seed, ie, potential traces of affectivity and activity (klesakarmasayah) »... See. [TV I. 18, p. 22],

19.1. The Sanskrit text videha, ie "having no [physical] body" -.. Gods respective spheres Brahmanical psihokosma. For details, see. [YS III. 26].

19.2. The Sanskrit text adhifwravasat. As the comment Vacaspati Mishra, here we refer to those yogis who have not fully eliminated the traces of the potential error associated with the choice of the object of concentration See. [TV I. 19, p. 24].

20.1. In the text of the sutra sraddhdviryasmrtisamadhiprajnapurvaka itaresdm.20.2. The commentary Vacaspati Mishra smrtify dhydnam, t. E. The remembrance (memory retention) is the appropriate form of contemplation. See. [TV I. 20, p. 24].

20.3. By Radhakrishnan S., «samadhi experience is not simple, uniform throughout the length. On the contrary, it is a sequence of mental states, becoming more and more simple, until, finally, they do not stop in the unconscious. Asamprajnata samadhi is the concentration at which the mental modus (cittavrtti) is absent, although latent impressions can be stored. In samprajnata samadhi is there a clear consciousness of the object, which is different from a reflective subject, whereas in asamprajnata this distinction disappears »[Radhakrishnan, 1931, vol. II, p. 360].

20.4. Regarding the allocation of Vyasa different types of yogis Vacaspati Mishra writes: "But if faith and other qualities are the means [implementation] of yoga (yogopayah), in this case, all [the yogis] without distinction of any kind could reach the concentration and its fruit (results ). However, it can be seen that the improved abilities (siddhi) are manifested in some cases, in other cases they are not; in some cases, improved ability (are gained] through some time (cirena), in others - through a longer period of time, and in the third - very fast (ksipra) Therefore it is said. "Indeed, these [yogis] nine [types] "They are called [the followers of the" soft »(mrdu), moderate (madhya -. the letters" average ") and intensive (adhimatra) method] because the [practiced their methods of realization of yoga] - faith, etc.,.. - being caused by forming factors (samskara) and "invisible force» (adrsta) previous births (pragbhavTya), [different] as "soft", moderate and severe. "Aspiration", or intensity (samvega), there is dispassion. Its "soft" , moderate or severe characteristic is also due to the hidden potentials (vasana) and the "invisible force" previous birth »[TV I. 20-21, p. 15].

23.1. In the text of the sutra Jsvarapranidhanadvd. On Ishvara, or personal God-creator. in religious and philosophical system of yoga information, see. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, p. 258-259; Dasgupta, 1930, Chapt. VIII: Samkhya Atheism and Yoga Theism, c. 231- 258]. and [Radhakrishnan, 1931, vol. II, p. 368-372].

23.2. Pranidhdna - undivided worship of Ishvara or trust in him. In Patanjali's system, this concept corresponds to the Brahmanical ideologeme bhakti in its specific form (bhaktivisesa). According Vacaspati Misra, such worship can take mental, verbal or bodily form. See. [TV I. 24, p. 16].

23.3. As can be seen from this commentary of Vyasa, it is explicitly present the idea isfa-devata (desired god), which received the full development in the tantric systems of medieval India. In this case, the adept handling to Ishvara is a prerequisite for the implementation of the ultimate goal of yoga, t. E. To achieve liberation.

24.1. The Sanskrit text vasana (Wed and [YS IV. 24]). As S. Dasgupta notes word samskara means unconscious impressions from objects ever presented in experience. "All our experience, whether cognitive, emotional or connotative, there are unconscious and can be played under favorable conditions, as a memory (smrti). Word vasana appears much later. Early Upanishads do not mention it, and as far as I know, it is also not mentioned in the Pali Pitaka It comes from the root vas - "be", "stay". This word is often used in the sense of samskara, and the commentary of Vyasa (IV.9) they are identified. However vasana usually ognositsya to the trends of past lives, and most of it is in the mind, as it were dormant. Shown only those who may find application in the field of life. Samskara, however - this unconscious state, which constantly generated experience. Vasana are congenital samskara, was not found in this life. " See. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, p. 263, n. I].

24.2. The Sanskrit text kaivalyam praptastarhi santi.

24.3. About threefold fetters (trrni bandhanani) cm. [Woods, 1914, p. 49, n. 2].

24.4. The system of yoga is - absolute Purusha, the ontological proof of the existence of which is dedicated to all the final part of the commentary of Vyasa to this sutra.

24.5. Here the word is used in the meaning of sastra "sruti" (revelation), t. E. The texts of the Vedic body which Brahmanical tradition regarded as absolutely authoritative in regard to the source of truth-as well as "smri-ti" (memorized). The latter group also includes the epic texts and pura-HN. See. [TV I. 24, p. 18].

24.6. classic refutation of the existence of Ishvara, put forward in the "Encyclopedia of Abhidharma" Vasubandhu would be interesting to bring in historical and cultural terms (V in. BC. e.). Denial is constructed in the form of discussions between abhid-harmistom and his opponent, justifying the idea of God the creator, -. Reception, common to sastra the classical period of Indian philosophy "[World there] not of Ishvara or the other [reasons, but] due to consistency and so on. - If there is only one reason - Iswara or [any] other - then the entire universe would arise at the same time. However, as can be seen; the occurrence of [all] the current happening in [certain] posledovatelnosti.- In this case, it may be in accordance with the desire of Easwara: "Let it there now! Let it be destroyed [now]! Suppose that [there will be destroyed and] later! "- But then we can conclude that in view of the differences of desires [Isvara] there is not the only reason. And besides, this difference must be simultaneous desires, as Ishvara is identical to that [only] reason. Otherwise, assuming its essential difference from the reasons Ishvara can not be the only prichinoy.- [Desire Ishvara not simultaneous, since in order to produce them, Ishvara takes account of other reasons] .- In this case, we arrive at to the bad infinity, since sequential occurrence of these (reasons] there is also a dependence on other reasons than these, and so on. etc.- Let us assume that the causes of the chain nepreryvna.- this belief in Ishvara as the cause does not go beyond the teachings of the ancient [sage] Shakya, because in his teachingadopted by the absence of [any] nachala.- And assuming simultaneity and non-simultaneity of desire Ishvara [appearance] of the universe, taking place in accordance with his wishes - It is impossible, because of his desire there is no difference in vremeni.Dalee, what is the purpose for Iswara which takes such great efforts to the creation of the universe? If for personal satisfaction, in this case, it is not his master, for he can not provide it without the help of other means. Similarly, it can not be a master, and in relation to all ostalnomu.Esli same, creating living beings who are subjected to untold suffering in the hells, and so on. E., He finds satisfaction in this, that he respects, such Ishvara! Indeed, well said about this in one verse [from "Shatarudrii"], to praise him: "He who burns down, who furious, ferocious one who is mighty, who eats meat, blood and bone marrow, therefore called Rudra" .Prinyatie [Isvara] as the sole cause of peace would mean the denial of the obvious effectiveness of other objects, and the assumption that Ishvara is the creator, together with the [other] reasons, it would be only expression of boundless devotion to him. Indeed, in the event that [the world] is not observed [no] other activity, except for reasons of activity, and if there are other reasons, acting in concert with him, Ishvara can not be tvortsom.Dalee, [assuming that] prime-creation is the reason Iswara , it also leads to the conclusion that it is beginningless for it, as does the Iswara, does not depend on drugogo.Analogichnym way should be considered accordingly and Pradhan (first-matter), [if it is taken as the sole cause of the world] .Poetomu only reason the world does not exist. Only their own actions lead to the birth of [living creatures] in this or that form of existence. However, the unfortunate [create] that do not have an enlightened mind, reaping the benefits of its activities in the mistaken belief [their cause] the highest Iswara "[AKB II. 64, p. 101-102].

25.1. The commentary Vacaspati Mishra said: "To the extent that Tamas obscures sattva intellect (buddhi), scattered, the process of comprehension (grahana) past, present and future facilities, [and facilities] supersensible [itmdriya) alone [or all ] together (pratyekasamuccaya) known as small or large. This is the seed (bTja), t. E. The reason omniscience (sarvajna). One knows about the past and [other forms of time] quite a bit, the other - more than a third - a lot. Thus, there is a relative fullness of understanding of the process [all] knowable (grahya) ». See. [TV I. 25, p. 29-30].

25.2. The Sanskrit text agamatah. As is the case with neterminologicheskim use of the word «sastra» (comments. 24.5), Vyasa is referring here to the texts have in Brahmanical tradition of absolute doctrinal authority.

25.3. The Sanskrit text dtmdnugranabhave'pi. In this connection it is interesting to note that in abhidharmistskoy tradition in describing Bhagavan Buddha as the highest doctrinal authority says about finding their "benefit for himself» (atmahita): «In order to show the greatness of his Master, author of the treatise begins with the opening of his perfections and bows before him in a bow. [The words "Moreover], who ..." refer to Bhagavan Buddha, dispel the darkness (andhakara), t. E., "Who or which destroyed the darkness." "Fully dispelled all darkness" [means]: dispelled the darkness around once and for all. Darkness is the absence of knowledge, because it interferes with the vision of things as they actually exist (bhutartham). And it is destroyed by the fact that Bhagavan Buddha found a means of overcoming (pratipaksa) [of ignorance] completely and forever, so that it never again occurs in relation to what else the object of cognition (jneya). Therefore it is completely and forever dispelled all darkness .Proslaviv so Bhagavan because of perfection, they acquired (atmahita) for its own sake, [author] reveals then his perfection, acquired for the benefit of others (parahita) ... »See. [AKB I. 1, from. I].

25.4. The Sanskrit text kalpapralayamahdpralayesu. According to the commentary Vacaspati Mishra, under the "destruction of kalpa" shall mean the end of "Brahma's Day" (see. [Vishnu Purana, VI of. 3]), when breaks (laya of) the entire universe except satya loka, ie, e. World Truth ( third world Brahma - see the comments of Vyasa to YS III 26);... under the "great destruction" means the destruction of Brahma, together with the world of truth. See. [TV I. 25, p. 31].

25.5. On the identification of the source, see .: [Woods, 1914, p. 56, n. 2]. According Vacaspati Misra, this statement by the teacher (asagua) Pancha sikha. And then he continues: "The first sage (adividvan) - is Kapila. Saying teacher Panchashikhi the "first sage" refers to the first teacher in a continuous tradition of [students and teachers], to which he himself belongs. This [Teacher] was the first to reach liberation (adimuktah). [The statement does] is not in the Supreme Master (paramaguru) mind, which is released initially. Of those who were first released, and of those who have attained liberation at different times, Kapila for us - the first sage and [first] released. That he is [for us] teacher [Sankhya yoga, but not initially]. For it (Sruyate), even Kapila acquired true knowledge (jnanaprapti) immediately after birth only through the grace of Mahesvara. He whom we call Kapila is considered as [fifth] incarnation (avatara) of Vishnu [however, may argue that] Hiranyagarbha (Golden germ.) - Self-existent (Svayambhu), [and because it was he - the first sage], because in the Vedas it is said he also found [knowledge] Sankhya and yoga. [On this should answer that] this is the Iswara, the first sage, Vishnu, self-existent, and there is Kapila. But [he] Iswara for those who came from the Self-Subsisting. This is the meaning of [the above] (iti bhavah) »[TV I. 25, p. 31].

26.1. The Sanskrit text avacchedarthena - letters. "To limit".

27.1. The sutra tasya vacakah pranavah. The Indian grammatical and linguistic and philosophical tradition keyword (term) vacaka is used in the sense of "expressing" (indicating), a vacya respectively - in the sense of "expressed" (denoted) .Prayava or aumkara - sacred syllable denoting the Iswara. As noted by S. Dasgupta, "although during the collapse (pralaya) pranava universe with his denotative ability to dissolve in the primal (prakrti), during the creation of the world it appears again, like germs, are punched out of the ground in the rainy season. Pranava is also called svadhyaya. By concentrating on it the consciousness of the adept becomes unidirectional and suitable for yoga, "See [Dasgupta, 1920, p. 166].

27.2. The commentary on this passage, "Vyasa-Bhasha" Vacaspati Mishra says; "... The property to be expressing - the property to carry information (prati-padakatvam), - this is the meaning of what was said. Another (meaning grammarians - vaiyakaranah), it appears that the ratio (sambandha - communication) between word and referent object (artha) is a natural (svabhavikah). But if we assume that the designated object has such a nature that it appears when using the [relevant] words, in this case, whenever such [natural] connection is not available, the object will not be marked, even if [the word] is used hundreds of times . So, when a pitcher whose presence [here] may be manifested by a lamp, not [at this point], even thousands of lamps will not help detect it. On the other hand, the word "elephant» (karabha - young elephant), which is conditional on the agreement (krtasamketa) used to refer to elephants (varana), obviously it conveys information about the elephant. On this basis, one can say that the ability to designate only created through a conditional agreement. After thinking (vimrgya) [about whether the relationship between word and referent object or conditional eternal, he] determines what is the point of view of the author, saying; "Established ...". The meaning of this is as follows (ayam abhiprayah): all words have the ability to (samartha) designation (abhidhana) all objects that have a variety of forms. Thus, the natural connection between these [words] to represent objects of various shapes set. However, the conditional agreement, [entered] Iswara (isvarasamketa), is [simultaneously] and that shows [link referred to words and object] (prakasaka), and the fact that its natural limits (myamaka). And this relationship is referred to and is denoted [immutable] when followed by an agreement entered Ishvara, but it is violated if the agreement fails to follow - this is [here] difference (vibhaga). That's about it and says [Vyasa]; "... A conditional agreement, [entered] Iswara" ". See. [TV I. 27, p. 32].

27. 3. In the Sanskrit text sargantaresu. According to the explanation Vacaspati Mishra, Vyasa introduce this clarification to remove a possible objection to your opponent; - "The Word is a product of the primal (pradhanika); during the great dispersion of the universe, it also dissolves into the root cause of the same way - and it refers to the ability, and then it becomes impossible to conditional agreement entered Great Ishvara (mahesvara), could recreate indicating capacity. [a word] ... Therefore [Vyasa] says: "Even when other [period] of creation ..." "See [TV I. 27, p. 32]...

27.4. Learned in the Agamas (agaminah), t. E. Experts in the Vedic corpus.

28.1. The Sanskrit text japa; initially this term refers to the ritual recitation of Vedic mantras. In medieval tantric systems japa - the common name of the practice of reciting the relevant mantras, which are activated as a result of the so-called basic phonemes (bija), symbolizing various aspects of psychic energy. For details, see. [Padoux, 1981, p. 141-154].

28.2. On the identification of sources of citations, [Woods, 1914, p. 62, n. 1],

29.1. The Sanskrit text here anupasarga, t. E. Additional information, including the type of birth (jati), life expectancy (ayuh) and a form of experience (bhoga). For more information, see. [YS II. 13].



The series was founded in 1965


RESEARCH CENTER EAST traditional ideology.


translated from Sanskrit, introduction, commentary and reconstruction system

EP Ostrovsky and V. Rudny MOSCOW • 1992