"Yoga Sutras" Patanjali with commentary V.Zaporozhtseva. Chapter I (30-51 af.)
Title of the lecture:
"Yoga Sutras" Patanjali
and "Vyasa Bhasya"
Comments Vadim Zaporozhtsev
the text "Yoga Sutras" Patanjali.
Author: Vadim Zaporozhtsev
Date and place of the lecture read:
Cultural Center "Enlightenment" in Moscow.
The main text of the lecture.
(Aphorisms 30 to 51)
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: So why, in fact, there is such a thing as the allocated consciousness.
30. The disease, apathy, doubt, carelessness, laziness, intemperance, false perception, inability to achieve [a] stage [concentration], the lack of stability [at concentration] - the diversion of consciousness are obstacles.
Comment Vyasa: [there are] nine obstacles, causing the scattering of consciousness. They occur at the same time the activity of consciousness. In the absence of this [activity], they are also absent. About [kinds of] the activity of consciousness mentioned above. The disease - an imbalance humors 1 [bodily] or internal secretions organov.Apatiya - the inability of consciousness to funktsionirovaniyu.Somnenie - [kind] of cognitive activity that involves both sides of [the problem], "maybe so", "maybe it's not so ".Nevnimatelnost - that is the lack of interest in the means of implementing sosredotocheniya.Len - inactivity because of gravity or 2.Nevozderzhanie consciousness - a thirst for connection with sensory perceptions obektom.Lozhnoe - erroneous knowledge 3.Nesposobnost achieve [a] step - failure to [appropriate] level sosredotocheniya.Otsutstvie stability - the inability of consciousness to fix itself on the achieved level 4, since only when gaining concentration it may be ustoychivym.Takim, these distractions consciousness and called nine-pollution yoga enemies yoga, yoga obstacle.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: Let's discuss this aphorism: it considers the obstacles of Patanjali - big, huge obstacles - on the path of yoga (I remind you that we have in mind a yoga of consciousness), that is the way of working with consciousness.
He lists nine obstacles and in turn goes through them.
Curiously enough classification. Now we go through it.
To understand it, it is best to check with your own experience, in which we were or are.
So, the first thing out there called ...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Oddly enough, but depending on whether in good or bad condition of our physical body, so good or bad, roughly speaking, our brains work.
We are dealing here with the mind, which are reflected and refracted rays of consciousness. But the mind, the body of water of the mind, not hanging in the void, but based on our body - that is, figuratively speaking, is what this body of water is located.
And if this support some problems, if we have some kind of malaise that disrupt activity in general all of our body, it indirectly or directly affects the mind - directly on the surface of the surface of the pond.
Moreover, it is quite a serious problem, even for people who have reached the vision of meditation the state of their own "I". But this level of implementation. It usually jnana-yoga - a very strong personality. They are literally steeled his body in the fire of discipline, very severe discipline; they spent every day for several hours in meditation and eventually conquered his senses and sharpened his mind to such an extent that the state experienced thoughtlessness - that is samadhi.
By the way, apparently this state looks at the person as if he was dead or in a coma: barely traceable breath, barely traced pulse.
And then a man comes out of this state and begins to lead a life liberated during his lifetime: he goes where he wants, he does whatever he wants, he is independent. In fact, he is only waiting for that moment only to karma worked with his body all that needs to be worked out, and the time of death just completely throw the body and no longer be produced.
Student: Why not throw the body immediately after enlightenment?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: For various reasons ...
People, of course, after such a state to understand all the intricacies of cause and effect, the law of karma, and they find it more necessary to a particular way of life.
So, even people can get sick.
Cases are known and are described, I'm anyway them faced with such moments, it's all good, man fully self control, and then starts to hurt and suddenly horrified to realize that he was harder and harder to again enter into this state. That is, the time it reached the already trodden path, in principle, at any time of life a person can sit down and actually repeat this state. And then he begins to notice that the disease is its ability to give way to renew this condition. What kind of disease, some piece of meat, unworthy of attention, a person can have such a huge enlightened action that he can not even get back to the state of samadhi.
The analogy here is. Imagine the state of samadhi - a country of high mountains. A path leads up the hill, and on this path can be, in general, to rise at any time by meditation. But if in the mountains began to rain, and washed away the path, then it is very difficult: all the slides under the legs. You go up - and slides down. And you know how much still depends on the body, from this maya, from this energy. This is when we talk about people who have reached such levels.
What can we say about people who have never experienced this, which never rose to some more or less serious level ?!
The slightest illness literally overshadows their brains. And about any concentration has no speech and when hurt when bad when nauseating when even some moments. That is the flip side of our body.
Student: But those are enlightened, they may also be razotozhdestvlyat himself, his "I" with the body? There is a level of implementation?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Of course, there are a lot of different levels.
But you should understand very clearly that our body - is largely the reverse side of our energy and if this energy of a disease involved in the distribution, it is necessary to make certain efforts to focus again and get samadhi.
Yes, you can razotozhdestvitsya, but for that you need to focus. And you can not even focus, because the disease does not allow you to. It is extremely difficult to do so.
Of course, you can do it, but, you know, then that disease will throw you down again.
You, of course, you can enter into samadhi and generally throw off the body - in fact die, but the question arises: is it always makes sense to die or preferable to fruition karma?
This is a very complex question.
We will now consider them not in a global setting, and it is in the local.
Thus, the disease causes the consciousness spread out.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Apathy.
Sometimes, of course, it can be attributed to the form of the disease - it is, if you will, a mental illness. The reluctance, unwillingness - it is a difficult moment.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because the fact that we actually want is what you get.
If on a very subtle level, we want to be in apathy, we are in it.
If we want to get out of it, we have it never fall.
But sometimes it is the situation that we have up there is like a switch: up and down, apathy is either there or it is not. There were some external circumstances, Click-Click - and you switch to the side of apathy switches, and you're in this apathy. This means you're somewhere he did not want to focus. Then, somewhere at some point you do not voleizyavlyaesh focus.
It is understood that all future does not work, and you are again in the allocated state. In other words, your mind is out of focus, it wanders, it broke. You apathy.
It is clear that this is a serious obstacle - the man, as it spreads.
Student: This is the state of energy? Reason? Tamas condition?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. Of course, here there is Tamas. Certainly. But another question.
Well, when that is clearly expressed by you. For example, you have a disease, but there is apathy, there is a passionate desire to be restored again, and you overcome the disease. Efforts. You lechishsya, apply some means.
Or, well, when you have apathy, but there is no disease. You, too, as some of it can come out.
But if you have, say, two of these obstacles at the same time? Man sick and apathetic, he did not want to do anything. It is already difficult. Do you understand? There still are such clever bells and whistles here.
And all this leads to the allocated consciousness.
Student: Next - doubt.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Doubt - here too is an obstacle that prevents us from being able to concentrate.
Student: What is the question?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is when we have energy and, roughly speaking, two channels on which it forward, and we hesitate: what to send, then here, we on this side once glance, then from the other side, then this, then one. And those spent throwing a huge amount of energy.
Doubt - this is the worst enemy of humanity. Worst enemy of humanity! No matter what, in fact, do not spend so much energy as to doubt.
Student: In the wobble?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Vibrations, yes!
Like Tsoi: "In our eyes - the cries of" Forward ", in our eyes - shouts" stop "!"
We begin to practice yoga, and sometimes do not know what to believe, what is not, and may be so or not, or maybe it's the wrong thing - and we constantly rush.
It is clear that no single some aspirations. That is, in this sense, ironically and paradoxically, it is better to make a mistake, but do not have doubts, than to be a man, always being in doubt.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because if you make a mistake, you have a chance to understand it quickly and go the other way, to fix it. And in doubt, you can live several lives in a row. I have seen, unfortunately such. It's a disease, illness timidly. When a person is involved even in yoga, all ranges, all calculates, calculates everything: and do not cheat if it.
I often meet with people. A large number of the so-called marginalized - such people. They consider that one system or the other. That will bring them to Christianity, in Islam. And they're all looking for the catch (I consider the extreme case).
It is clear that on such a small level of doubt completely unacceptable: they become spread our attention. Here we have brought a leg, you just quietly take a step forward, this foot range: either forward or backward. As a result, she is doing something in the middle and just turns out to be a step into the abyss. This is a typical situation - half measures, half-measures method, when a person takes - and averages, and as a result sits between two stools.
This is a typical situation that can be encountered. It is undoubtedly in a strong form.
In a weak form of doubt become spread mind: when you do something, but inside you like a spy, which is not laid out on all cylinders, and every minute is, so to speak, "open the door to the enemy." Again, in this sense it is sometimes better to do something, no doubt, to the end, even if you make a mistake, than to be in perpetual doubt.
However, each case must be considered separately. Because there are different moments, there are those that should be no doubt. But in regard to spiritual things is an obstacle that does not allow sometimes to achieve concentration. The worst obstacle.
Instead of having to sit down and without a doubt, without analyzing, to do something, we start again, and again, and again, it's all spin: and so and so. And here in front of us the last spurt to the attainment of enlightenment, and doubt not allow us to do so.
Student: Why is this happening? Man is based on your previous experience? He wants something different, new, he is told: you do yoga - reach such a result, but he doubts? For him, this is some new experience, which he does not yet know. He does not know what is possible.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: bad karma.
Student: It does not trust the new?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: bad karma.
Perhaps he once lied to myself to others, and now carries the situation itself: he can assume that he is now lying just as he lied to others. Do you understand? And these doubts begin here, distrust. That is a negative past experience has led to the emergence of such behavior psychology. However, this negative previous experience has been developed as a result of his own bad karma. Clear?
In a certain sense of doubt, no matter how that talk about bad karma. And, of slim enough bad karma, refined.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because if it was not, then you either immediately be recognized as a system of false and generally would not look at her, or so, if you have received it, he would have received until the end.
This is a very serious disease, from which different people get rid.
In the books of yoga write a lot of things, but not all people immediately rush to perform.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because they have doubts, they do not fully trust. And questioned led to dispersal.
Student: There is duality?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Of course!
Disciple: The next obstacle - inattention.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Inattention - it is carelessness, in which many, many involved, from beginners to practice yoga flow.
At this very time consuming and not getting the results.
If it is said: it is necessary to do so-and-so, then we have to be extremely attentive to the nuances.
But most seem to us that we basically understand the system and "What this deal all clear to do - and do it?!." But there are nuances, the little nuances. If they miss, then, in principle, then the result is the achievement of starvation, the number of attempts. Once the attempt, something casually did not get the result; the second time - again was inattentive, did not get the result. The third, fourth, fifth, sixth ... And then the hundredth time, nothing comes from you, and you start to really thoroughly read these books, these guides. Or did you start to listen to what you say, if you're someone taught.
You say, do so-and-so, and you somehow felt that there, you have a different make, I decided that now would be like this. And at this very moment there was a small loophole for enlightenment, and you missed it. Why? Because casually dismissed.
Most of it is a problem ... What is there to be honest, you're her suffering is universal. Why am I so declare it? For a long time he was sick of the same disease. But it is on this, again, major, globally.
Student: Mindfulness - is also focusing this neotvlechenie something?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, when we allow ourselves ... You know, we always do not have time to sort out, to quietly think, understand and make logical steps. After all, it's Yoga consciousness. It does not take place here such moments of energy, an attempt to take unceremoniously, when, if you do not know how to unscrew a bolt of a special key, you take a sledgehammer - and begin to simply churn. Break out along with a piece of the wall, but, in principle, to achieve what you want. It is, in principle, acceptable, if you operate the energy method.
But if you go by the consciousness, a sledgehammer in a china shop or microelectronic devices does not apply.
And we are not careful, we're going unceremoniously. We are not yet fully understood, we have a logical chain, it is very clear - the outflow of one of the other - is not built, we kind of half asleep gave up too, and said: "A Th there to reflect on this I'll take the energy?"
And sometimes the habit of taking energy. And what is to take power? This act is ineffective. That is part of this same energy is sprayed for other purposes. It is not enough to focus and consciousness spread out.
A typical example. The person starts to do something on the computer: just did not work - and the new, from scratch, begins. No, do not start from scratch! Stop there, where it is impossible, understand thoroughly what you did before, rds chain! And maybe you will not have to start from scratch! It is disrespectful to the result. His own.
Inattention - an illness that eventually passes. But it does not allow to concentrate. Thoughts jump. You know, we believe: 1, 2, 3, 4, 48, 49, 50. Yeah? And where this here the remaining part?
Just the thought: oh, I'll focus, I think about something, about something, about something, distracted - and away we go ... to focus your attention, then you wave energy captured - and suffered. You have begun to focus on the stein, and as a result you catch yourself on what one thinks about some hamburger. Suffered, suffered, suffered, suffered!
Trainee - Laziness.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Laziness. It's all "wonderful".
Laziness - it is such, I would even call the poison, which is generally subject to everything and everyone.
Laziness is one of the manifestations of Tamas, the most strong when everything clumsily when to do something, you have to overcome some discomfort, as if there is no power to overcome it, and we are complacent and roll down again.
Here we have the hill, even a small hill, and we are at the very bottom. And we do not have the strength to climb up, to overcome this obstacle. And Tamas tells us: "And why Well it?" This condition is sometimes fixed, and the man himself does not give a report that he, in general, living like an animal. As he starts to act only when there is a direct threat to him or something in his life.
Laziness is very savagely penalized. Evolutionary, if you do not do anything for a long time, then comes a whip, in comparison with which to overcome the feeling of laziness, force yourself to get up to do something - it's just a fairy tale, and pleasure. This evolution is based.
Status lazy stay, and when a heavy body and mind heavy, not to be confused with fatigue.
There is a state of pleasant fatigue, when you famously did any work and fell on his couch, watch TV or relax in a different way. You thus there is clarity - sattva. In principle, you are as if in a state of a bummer, but it differs fundamentally. As to the state of sattva was activity - rajas, and it's well-deserved rest, giving your body a well-deserved opportunity to recuperate.
But it is quite another thing when there were no previous state of rajas, and you just fell apart - in this case, you state the severity, Tamas. And I think: "Oh, how hard it is, I'm so tired, I want to lie still." This condition is addictive, like a swamp: the more you lie, the more tired; you do not rest, still trying to relax, but instead even more exhausting. It is our habit.
And you begin to actively do something about it cheerfully, and then you realize: "My God I was lying in that nauseating condition, I felt so bad and I want to continue to lie And when I began to actively do something about it, I immediately became alert,.! cheerful, happy, rose tone, and increased internal pleasure. "
The habit of laziness - just ingrained. Instead of wasting time on Rajas, we spend on Tamas. We have a free half-hour of time, and instead devote their active self-improvement, to learn English, practice yoga, some clever book read, put yourself on the next level up, we tend to all this shoot: we lazily, reluctantly.
It is clear that this leads to the allocated, that is, it does not contribute to the reduction of thoughts in the mind and achieving the first state of concentration and then -samadhi, focusing superconscious.
Student: Next - intemperance.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is also an important point. Intemperance is meant not only the sex (usually when they say the word "abstinence" means sexual abstinence, but here it is used in a wider sense).
Here there is an object, which we for some reason began to crave. This can be anything: a woman or a man, food, car, some action. Here is a longing for something.
This desire begins to dominate over us and work, and if we wish to get, then we are satisfied. If not - our consciousness is torn, it can not find peace, it rassosredotachivaetsya. We have become hostages of something external. And once we become hostage to something external, then, accordingly, our consciousness is directed outward. And the number of waves in the mind only increases. It does not decrease. Rather than focus inward, on the contrary, we cling to everything external, we are unable to five minutes to sit quietly and ustakanilos your mind. We were outside carries.
Sexual abstinence - one of the strongest on the extent of human exposure, if a person is exposed to it, the greater part of his nature, even on a chemical level (because the hormones are produced), begins to act on the following mechanism.
Here is a man sat and meditated, was in good condition, focus your mind. Suddenly opened his eyes and saw that, it turns out, all the time in front of him sat a beautiful girl. She sat there while he was meditating, but he did not see her, he closed his eyes. He opened his eyes, he saw her he wanted her. As a consequence, what does it mean? He wanted to possess her. It is as if his attention from the inside out, turned his attention and his mind to it. And then begin to work already hormonal mechanisms. He has thoughts and images that come into play in the other centers of the brain. They, in turn, affect some gland, these glands emit blood quite material and objective hormones - chemical substances, under the influence of which we are experiencing a particular state. And the whole process begins to unfold. That is something he has long closed his eyes to focus again - and can not, because the blood starts circulating hormones, which in every way do not let it sit still.
Here it is described a multi-step mechanism for the occurrence of this longing. It is very easy there, but once awakened, then try these hormones do something. It should be triple greater effort of will not to succumb. This is not a mental desire - it is a chemical desire. When even Slash, but do you want this woman! And to overcome this is an order of magnitude, but what order of magnitude, three orders of magnitude more difficult.
So you have, of course, nothing can not think. You begin to think only about the realization of this desire. About any concentration of no looking into yourself inside, you have not thought. Because you start to think that your enjoyment is outside. You forget for the moment that all pleasure - is the essence of inner pleasure. Do you think that this is it - the outside: if you're up to this girl now do not you touch, you die.
These cravings are not necessarily sexual. They are strong, but there are others. For example, the desire for career growth at work or the desire to earn a lot of money, or desire something else - that is, longing for something outside. It automatically does not allow to focus it on the contrary we like sprays. The concentration of the spray it outside.
We have an object, transient, and therefore, a lot of factors to this transient object was in that state which we wanted. And we must constantly hold all these factors. Instead of reducing the number of thoughts in my head, it (the number) is only growing. There is a phrase: a small amount of money - a small number of problems, and a lot of money - a large number of problems. Because they have to hold.
That's exactly the same here. Trying to keep the coveted object or somehow communicate with it leads to the fact that we constantly have to think about the millions, millions, millions of individual things outside. All we are enslaved!
This greatly exaggerated case. But it still happens on a weakly manifested level. In everyday life. For example, we long for something to eat and can no longer overcome it.
Disciple: How to deal with it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: In Patanjali will further description of methods, but the easiest way, until we are tempted to - to stop it all at the initial stage. This so-called principle of vairagya, detachment. Not when you're staring at this beautiful girl and lost control of himself, and even before, when you know that you will come into contact with it and you will feel it. You already know the mechanism. You until it for yourself do not feel at full strength, but you know that if you will go with her in the same bed, it will be very difficult to resist. Do you understand? And you do not let this state as long as you can not reasonably somehow control. You say, "No No No..."
This principle of non-enjoyment of all external. As monks live - they see nothing, hear nothing, sit in his cell. In a small room, where there is nothing. Accordingly, there is no temptation, temptation passionate wish for something.
But, again, this method works, if we practice it for a limited time, and only if we use this time to improve themselves. Because it makes no sense - just sit in such conservation. Then you will see the object of his desires, and 3000 times stronger than that desire in your soul lights up. And if you use this period for self-improvement, you can take it all under control, and even longer in contact with the object of desire, already did not feel like in a stultifying, as rassosredotachivayuschem.
Again, I remind you that this is not tantra yoga, it is the methods of consciousness. Directly opposite methods! In Tantra Yoga contrary I would say that the more you hanker woman or girl is, the better. You can take the energy method. But here we are acting by consciousness: the stronger the energy, the wind uncontrollably like it will blow out the flame of your consciousness. As the candle.
Student: Then - a false perception.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: False perception - and we have already touched on this - when we have something to take for one for another.
Here is another typical picture of a false perception. It is said that before well built houses. They say: "Look at us on the street all the buildings, which horseradish But before .. Here was built 400 years ago, the house, it is necessary - and even there, though burst!!!"
In fact, as early as we built bad, and now. Equally build. The difference is only in one: all the dilapidated houses were destroyed in 400 years, and there were only units that have been well built. This does not mean that earlier all these houses were. No! It says only that preserved only good at home. But we make false conclusions and, based on these false conclusions, such as myself start to lead.
Similarly, in their daily lives, we sometimes believe one another. That is, we do not give ourselves up to the end of the report, why we behave in one way or another. Somewhere there is an error, and if there is an error, then what kind of concentration can be a speech? We have something just swallow. Here, we are well-read to eradicate our thoughts. There were 100 thoughts in mind, we eradicate, eradicate, eradicate, their remains, say, 40. And then 20 the thoughts we think: oh no, it's a sacred cow, leave them, they should be! And we begin to reduce the residue. And what's the point to cut the remainder, if these 20 as a leaping and jumping? Why? Because we perceive them falsely.
Student: Then - the inability to achieve any level of concentration.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is difficult for me enough to comment on, because ...
Disciple: What levels of concentration in question?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Here we have in mind, if the person that is practicing.
The fact that there are several steps. For example, very difficult to focus, if you have not learned to disconnect from my feelings. Literally, you start all the way.
Disciple: Touch and other?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: touch, smell, hearing, sight - everything starts to pull you from concentrating. It is very hard to go higher if the previous stage has not yet worked out.
Disciple: A method for the same is given? Concentration and distraction of this energy from the senses to the concentration?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. But the fact is that if we do not reach, and try to have direct control of their minds, if we are exposed to even the action of our senses, but at the same time trying to somehow very hard to control the concentration of our consciousness, in fact, we are beginning to build a house without a foundation . And we just focused, suddenly something takes us out of ourselves, everything - you flew.
This subject will be discussed in detail, as will study octal stage that for what it is (identify itself from the sensuous objects to samadhi). We will touch on this topic in the future.
Student: Lack of stability when focusing.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Also we discuss later.
Student: Then everyone. "These distractions of consciousness - are the obstacles."
The next aphorism.
31. Suffering, depression, tremors, breaths are accompanied by scattered [states of consciousness].
Comment Vyasa: Suffering [There are three kinds of]: caused by internal [reasons], caused by other creatures and supernatural caused [reason] 1. Suffering - is something from which living things tend to get rid of when it is a violation of their porazhaet.Unynie mental functions due obstacles [implementation] zhelaniya.Drozh in the body - when a part [of the body] tremble, that is shaken 2.Vdoh have breath of life, in which the outside air is inhaled. Exhale - when coming out the air trapped inside [the body] .All these [events] are accompanied by scattered states [of consciousness], that is, they are only in the scattered state of consciousness and no concentrated at soznanii.Itak these scattered [state of mind], which are an obstacle yogic concentration should be suppressed by the previously mentioned practice and dispassion. Here [author] concludes by saying on the subject of the practice:
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: We remember that consider the aphorisms of Patanjali with commentary of Vyasa. That is, we should be aware that there is still the focus of understanding Vyasa added.
There is a slightly different interpretation of the same aphorism. It is built on the following point: in fact, when there is the allocated state, there are certain phenomena. But here the emphasis is not just made for everybody, but especially for yoga practitioners, for those who are starting to practice yoga.
So, when a person is just starting to focus his mind, he begins to deal with the waves here are such obstacles.
Student: In the form of suffering?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. He began to study, and suddenly something starts to emerge in the world around him, causing his suffering.
But in terms of, say, another explanation is the accumulated karma is purified. These are old, old things that have not worked, but now they are beginning to emerge. You see here a little bit different accent?
And now that there is? Sufferings are listed again ...
Student: Suffering, depression, tremors, breaths.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Here is a typical set of "gentleman's set" conditions, through which, in general, any practitioner who is just beginning to deal with, always pass.
I, too, about this constantly tell you that: "Guys, wait Wait for depression, discouragement ...!"
Student: Absolutely, anyone?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: No, of course not absolutely anyone. If the Lord is God in the flesh, then, of course, he did not feel this would be. But if there were any shortcomings, if any, in principle, to the person that has ever experienced the depression and suffering, it is now in an easy manner must have had it - and just give it up forever.
Student: But does not happen without such conditions? Such practices, methods of yoga?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Just in the next aphorism, saying, namely practices and methods to suppress these conditions. However, they do not suppress the essence of yoga.
Of course, they do not necessarily have to be present, they need not be, but generally are present.
And so you start doing yoga. You have lived a normal life, normal. (This is a controversial question, what is a normal life, but you live, the vast majority of people on this planet).
And at one point you started actively yoga concentration. You start active on a given system to practice concentration. Sometimes things go "with a bang": stronger, stronger, stronger. But most of us are not perfect, we all have karma. The person starts to focus more and comes as a result of the wave of depression. First, lift the wave - a wave of depression then, a wave of something cool - then a wave of depression. And these states alternate. Man sometimes discouraged: it's all of a sudden? I like all good do what I feel so bad?
But in a sense, it turns out that, experiencing this condition, it easily works off future problems. In the future, all these problems were to rise to cosmic proportions, and then, indeed, they would be difficult to solve, but now he seems to be a little blood gets off.
So the state of depression, and depression occur from time to time, when you start to practice yoga intensively.
Then in the aphorism called quite a curious thing: there is a shiver in the body.
Channels are beginning to clean, when you reach a certain level of concentration. So you're focused, you have some small amount of thoughts in the mind, but in order to achieve concentration, your whole energy system must operate solely on its maintenance. And it at you with a tremendous work. You do this, by the way, you do not notice.
Student: During the concentration?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: During concentration.
But it works, it attracts more and more energy, and this energy will come across obstacles on contaminated feeds. She begins to clean them forcibly. You're something to reflect, you're all in a concentration of consciousness, but in the same moment, your energy starts to clean your channels.
During this process, you are on a wave of uncontrollable shivering. That is, your body starts to shake. You sit like focus, and you, like an electric current, sometimes literally breaks.
By the way, here's one of the reasons why the lotus posture is recommended: it just does not allow you to break the meditation. You somehow shakes or throws, but you have a steady state: a large base and a center of gravity at the bottom. From such a state is very difficult to overturn the human, it is stable. And when it starts to "sausage", it does not fall.
Student: During pranayama?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Come on now will not touch the pranayama. It is during meditation.
Why lotus posture so appreciate in yoga? Why all yogis, usually in the pictures painted in the lotus position? For this reason, if you're working by consciousness, you hit a shiver, a clear channel. Then it goes: the channels cleared and there are no more trembling.
Student: But what does "shudder cleared channels and no"?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: You are automatically rebuilt his body, not even engaging in them! Do you understand? Without the same hatha yoga, you rebuilt body. Pure consciousness techniques.
You see, what is "focus"?
Student: So you're on a subtle level, did it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes! A thin corrected rough.
Next there transferred?
Student: Next - breaths.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: There are little hints.
Aphorisms of Patanjali - a summary of the different approaches. Here is a good link to the pranayama techniques: as long as there is breath in and breath out, unfocused mind. It is very easy to check.
You can sit down and try to focus: the more you'll focus, the more slowly you will be breathing. And as the concentration it will slow down.
In the state of samadhi, when one thought will be present or not be thought and consciousness will highlight itself, even breathing stops.
In Tantra, which is deservedly used method of pranayama, this state is achieved by breathing. But in the classical Patanjali yogas of consciousness of this state down and died - Kev or kevelo - is achieved by concentrating the mind.
If there is a breath - it means there is no concentration.
Student: That is the relationship of thought and breath? The less you have thoughts, the less light fluctuations? So, if a person about something intensely thinks he is stronger, stronger, more intense breathing?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. And we have to remember this and take into account this very connection between breath and thought. Or, much more difficult to understand the relationship between breath and thought of sexual energy. This is the basic connection, where a lot of yoga practice is built. More precisely, the entire spectrum of all known yoga practices are built exactly on this connection.
So, once again: is directly proportional to concentration of mind.
32. in order to address them - the practice of one essence.
Vyasa Comment: To eliminate scattered let [Yogi] [states of consciousness] practice of working with consciousness, "relying" on a [separate] suschnost.Odnako order [who believes] that consciousness is a consciousness of one object after another, and [to Besides] instantly, the whole consciousness [in its totality] only unidirectionally, and can not be distracted 1. [just in case] when it [mind], distracted from the rest, is concentrated on a single object, it becomes one-pointed. Therefore, it is not [be sent] to the need for each object. Similarly, for one who believes consciousness is unidirectional, as [it is] a stream of similar experiences; if it is a property of one-pointedness of consciousness, [are treated] as a stream, such a stream of consciousness is not [something] a unitary view of [its] instantly. If [we assume that one-pointedness has] the [particular] the contents of consciousness, which is a constituent element of a continuous flow [of consciousness], the [matter] is whether this stream of similar or different contents of consciousness, consciousness itself is always unidirectional, as it is necessarily [fixed] on each object. Thus, the [thought] of the scattered consciousness is inexplicable. From this it follows that consciousness is unitary, directed to different objects and stably 2. [Next]. If the contents of consciousness, having different inner nature, would be generated as a non-unified consciousness, then in that case one [cognition] could remember what was seen by another cognition? 3. As one cognition could be the subject of karma accumulated other cognition? Even if it somehow and installed, it is only a manner reminiscent of [logic] "cow manure and dairy food."
Moreover, when considering consciousness as different, [unrelated cognition opponent] comes to the denial of the reliability of the experience of self-identity. How can [the two cognitions] "I touch what I first saw" and "I see something that I touched before," can be attributed to not having the knowledge of the subject of differences, if all cognitions are different? How cognition "I am the indivisible Atman", which has as its object an idea [atman], and occurs in a completely different consciousness may belong to the same subject as a general knowledge [knowledge]? After all, the knowledge "I am the indivisible Atman" can be obtained from their own experience. Moreover, the perception of credibility is not superior to other means of knowledge. In contrast, other means of knowledge are used precisely because of the perception. So consciousness is unitary, directed to different objects and stably.
How [is reached] the purification of sustainable consciousness referred to in the sastra?
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: Here again, Vyasa decided to add some his thoughts on a very interesting and complex subject. But there is a greater degree was influenced by the logic of the school. Here's what they like to do, for example, Buddhists and others - a logical construction of something.
However, to comment on this aphorism should be like this: all of the previous state are eliminated, when we begin to focus your mind on one entity (which may be a clay cup, the Lord is God in the flesh, Goddess Kali, the holy sweet syllable OM or anything else). Usually, when there is one entity and all other entities are excluded, then our consciousness is focused, and the states referred to in the last aphorism, disappear.
One more important conclusion: the state of depression, depression, negativity is eliminated at that moment, when the mind is focused on one thing.
This kind of practice even if you feel a particular condition - depression, depression, and at the same time sit to meditate, it is directly proportional to the reduction of your thoughts you will dissipate like smoke, a negative state. When you stay one thought, would not you even, so to speak, the raid of these negative states.
33. Purification of consciousness [reached] the cultivation of friendliness, compassion, joy, and impartiality 1 towards happiness, misery, virtue and vice.
virtuous impartiality to possess vicious sklonnostyami.U one who cultivates [their feelings] in this way, there is a "light" quality, and hence the purification of consciousness. Being purified 2, [it becomes] aspiring to one point and reaches stability.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: Here! There is very good list! Once again, read this aphorism. It is very important. Important methods.
Purification of consciousness is attained by cultivating friendliness, compassion, joy, and impartiality in relation to happiness, misery, virtue and vice.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is a kind of "code of conduct". In the future, it will be considered in more detail in the pits and Niyama.
Listed here - a good habit, the answer to the question of how I should behave, which in itself should cultivate feelings, and what does not. And it lists the feelings that must be cultivated.
They are worth a strongly support and generate. That is, if they suddenly you are born, you are not crushing them, but on the contrary, to support them in every possible way, and cherish.
Notice: it is proposed to focus on the bright side. Oddly enough, but the focus on the bright side leads to a hit. It will in future also have to Patanjali.
And focusing on them directly opposite does not lead to anything.
And the last point -bespristrastnost ... Read again as it says literally ...
"... With respect to happiness, misery, virtue and vice."
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: "... fortunately, suffering, virtue and vice."
Somewhere all built in one line.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because you are in your life you will meet people at, say, the virtues, and you can meet people at vice. Here we answer the question, you should refer to them.
Someone said to me: "I will love and respect in every way and I will be virtuous in every way and to kill something bad to do with respect to vice!"
In the 33 th aphorism approved by another: you should be treated equally and that, and another manifestation. Rejoice, if someone takes a virtue, to be pleased with all my heart with all my heart! And to be indifferent to the vice. But if something depends on you, you will certainly have to do something according to their dharma. Or his karma. However, if you just turn on your television and litsezreesh as some scoundrel once again something to our poor country does, you have to look at it impartially. Only in this case you do not let your mind spread out, be involved.
If you see that someone has really started to finally deal with the case, the country began to revive from the ashes, all the forces of the soul rejoice. But if you see again any oligarch who dragged another billion dollars abroad and trying to teach us to live, you can be resent, you can make plans for their physical elimination and elimination, but then you will achieve little in yoga. Again, if this is not your direct responsibility. It should be a feeling of non-involvement. Indifference.
It actually karmic laws are very fierce. On the comedy unfolds before your eyes: you see, as a man digs himself a hole, into which it falls, and then it will not be a lot of fun there.
Disciple: How this should be treated?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: unemotional. Because if you start emotion, then begins spraying.
34. Or through exhalation and breath-hold. "
Comment Vyasa: [Full] exhale have bleeding from the chest through both nostrils by means of a special effort; its retention has pranayama, [that is, control of the breath] "Or." - [yogi] should achieve mental stability with the help of these two [ways].
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: This is the same as in the case of mantra-yoga, perhaps, and everything to do with pranayama.
Student: All of the pranayama here?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes.
Student: What about the Eightfold Path: there will not be?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: I mean themselves mentioned techniques - not.
Student: Of all the techniques of pranayama this?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: That's all!
I emphasize again: why can not be regarded as the Patanjali yoga system ultimately describing all! This is just a summary of the above methods. And as one of the methods, means to remove all previously described obstacles and focusing of consciousness on itself Patanjali offers pranayama system. And what pranayama note breath - delay.
There is a view in some quarters (yoga, scientific) that allegedly at the moment has not yet developed a science of pranayama. What it came later.
And indeed, there is a detailed description of pranayama of tantra. And all of tantra date back several later date.
I do not know how valid point of view that at the time of writing the treatise of Patanjali Pranayama has not been developed. I, frankly, do not agree with this. But for scientists ... They have completely different criteria.
I believe that these methods could be known much earlier, but just like that, in a broad sense, is not mentioned. No wonder that all were closed Tantra teachings.
I think this could be a system developed much earlier, but as the main elements of which should have been mentioned as the concentration of consciousness, breath and delay Patanjali fairly briefly described. Any pranayama largely comes down to the inhalation, exhalation and retention. When holding your breath increases if we control their breathing delay, we, respectively, control the one-pointedness of mind. That is the thrust of his one. And as a consequence - the absorption of self consciousness.
Here everything about pranayama.
Again, again and again! Many people are beginning to read Patanjali and some even come in bewilderment: "How is it: but where is the pranayama Where is the mantra yoga Where other species?" I still think that this is a concise overview of the different methods.
35. Or [supersensible] activities with respect to [the relevant] facilities at its origin [and] cause mental stability.
Vyasa Comment: Perception "divine" smell in addition [Yogi], which focuses on the tip of the nose, and there [supersensible] activities with respect to odor. Perception of taste [is achieved by focusing] on the tip of your tongue, the perception of color, form - on the palate, the perception tangible - in the middle of language and perception of sound - on the basis of language. And so these [types of supersensible] activities at its origin the consciousness is fixed in a stable condition, dispel doubts and become a means of [acquiring] wisdom through yogic sosredotochenie.Analogichnym way and manifestations [sensory] activities with respect to the moon, sun, planets, gems, lights, rays of light, and so on. d. it should also be understood as having the [relevant] object. For, despite the fact that the true essence of real objects, as it is in reality, and is known on the basis of a sastra, inference or guidance teachers - because all this can show the true nature of reality, 1 - as long as at one would any part of [reality] is not received by his own senses, all [is] the same as if [it was] just an unknown, and can not cause a solid understanding of such subtle things as the final liberation and for prochee.Poetomu to confirm [authenticity] sastra, inference and guidance of teachers, at least some particular [thing] must necessarily be perceived directly 2. and then, if one side of the subject, which was discussed in these [sources of knowledge], perceived directly , then all [the rest] delicate items, up to the final release, cause full confidence. With this purpose, it is said about purifying arose soznaniya.Esli state of consciousness, is fully controlled by a disorderly functioning [psyche], it becomes able to directly perceive this or that object. And when that happens, then it [the yogi], freely occur faith, energy, mindfulness and concentration.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: This is a fairly good aphorism about how we can help in further advancing superpowers arising in yoga class.
What if we experience some kind of supersensible experience an unusual experience? This can be extrasensory perception: at a distance to see, hear, touch, feel and smell, etc. And even the slightest manifestation of these abilities can focus the mind on them and as a consequence - the focus of it. This is a great, great help.
36. Either carefree and luchezarnaya..1
Vyasa Comment: [The words] "... activities ... at its origin [and] cause mental stability" must migrate [from a previous sutras]. [This refers to] grasp Buddhi, [arising from the yogi], focusing on the lotus of the heart, for the mind discovers the essence of the bright lights, like Akasa 2. Thanks to the art of preserving stability in that [state] activities [of consciousness] appears in the form of the sun shines , moon, planets, [and] precious kamney.Analogichnym way consciousness dissolved in [the idea of] self, no longer have to worry and becomes like a great ocean, peaceful, infinite, self-only. It is said in this regard: "Thinking about the atman as a fact that there is only an atom, a truly [Yogi] comes to perfect knowledge:" I am "3. This dual form" Carefree "activities," which has the object "and" self-only "I called the radiant. With the help of the consciousness of the yogi acquires a stable condition.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: So, the following aphorism of Patanjali, where he lists the methods of stopping mysleobrazovaniya - or rather, the ultimate goal, when the mind is absorbed by itself.
Before that, we looked at different methods of mantra-yoga, and then mentioned the breath. Now, Patanjali mentions the method that goes along with this technique, as the Atma vicara - study of the Atma.
But first a few words about what this aphorism. Again, the basic axiom: we have what is called our "I", this is our "I" in different contexts is called Atma (from the word "atom", "indivisible"), then there is a kind of particle, which we are. Moreover, it is our "I" we can not share.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because if we could share our "I" into two halves, it would be more than one "I," and the two "I". That is what we are, by definition, indivisible.
Remember the axioms: our "I" manifests itself as either consciousness or the energy, but it's just two manifestations of a single, which is called our "I". And it offers a kind of machinery, which is part of the practice of Raja Yoga - the study of his self.
This is an interesting word - "self". In Russian as if "yaynost". The essence of himself.
Here the emphasis is less on the mind, and more on the union of the two. That is, the "I" in some close to the very essence of the "I". It's not quite the energy method and the method does not mind, but the one and the other a few at a time.
To do this, use the following practices: should contemplate your self at the center of his heart, but the heart is not the physical. It is understood in the middle of the chest. We focus on this state, "I am."
Student: Why is this place?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Fairly complex and non-trivial question.
If we remember the human body the device, the center point equidistant from both the consciousness and the energy of a point, that is, it is the place where the balance and consciousness and energy. Hence, as the power to the center and to the center of consciousness alike.
No wonder the practice of dying begin with this point because it is the connection point after the death of consciousness and energy, when these two aspects merge. In a fraction of a second they are transformed into a single conglomerate, undivided.
That is why the practice of yoga to death so important: Yoga naturally flows naturally integrated consciousness and energy that is recovered. This last, of course, the fraction of a second. Then, if the method of Phowa, for example, consciousness is not sent, it is involved in a cycle of experiences after death, but if it is held at this point, if not unbridled energy, this is a great chance, as in the Transfer Yoga, Yoga of the Clear Light. They start from that point.
Returning to the aphorism of Patanjali.
Patanjali mentioned, among other methods, and this method - the study of his self, the study of the "I". And unlike pure method of consciousness, when the mind just flashes, but is not affected, is not involved, there is no such a hard aspect, there is even a certain emotional component is present, the light energy.
Who sees? "I". And who is this "I"? And we begin to mentally look for who is the "I", really? And sooner or later it comes to a state where we are beginning to feel: Here I sit and "I" perceive. I worry, my Atma perceives, experiences, analyzes, involved in the process, she oversees the process.
Patanjali very casual about the fact mentioned as the doctrine came later on the investigation of his "I".
37. Or consciousness, having the object of [those] free from desires.
Vyasa Comment: Either the consciousness of the yogi acquires a stable condition when it is "painted" the perception of [individuals], free from desires, [perception], acting as the object of [concentration] 1.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: This aphorism, oddly enough, is close to the aspects of Tantra Yoga. That's why, when we say that Tantra emerged rather late, it is wrong, because even Patanjali mentions this principle. Even if we take the Rigveda, there are the same thoughts, but figuratively. So, an interesting aphorism. The principle of Tantra Yoga: "What do you think, so you become and where you look back and you go.".
If we focus on a particular deity or to a particular creature that is already perfect, which has already passed all the way, to realize, that there is a very paradoxical effect, which built Tantra: we inherit the status of this creature. That is, we, in spite of himself, we become this creature.
More precisely, not that we grow this creature. Our Atma, our manifestation of the Absolute - it certainly ours. It - it is his. But all those moments in which he won, moving at our disposal as well. We like to copy.
It can be a long time, for example, to fill some text on your computer, spend a few days, and you can then come in and re-write just a few seconds. Here, about the same situation. In fact, to do this the first time a breakthrough, it takes a lot of effort and time, but then again it is quite simple to copy. And if we think about this or that person, according to the law of our mind works, its exact copy formed in our mind, in the small matter of the mind pure. And the longer it is there, the more we begin to adjust to this image. No wonder people who have long thought about Jesus Christ, sometimes there are scars, like the nails, which the Saviour was crucified. On the physical level! After a rough body - only a docile instrument in the hands of the subtle body and subtle body, respectively, builds itself on that form, which is in the mind.
There mated with mystical tantric practices, sexual practices in Tantra, as we build our new body, when we fast by rebuilding your body pattern of a deity or being who has reached success. By the same token there are Christians who read about Christ, his youthful years. They perforce focused on the spirit and perforce reach this state - exactly the same level of purity. Similarly, in Islam, when someone reads about the Life of the Prophet. Or Buddhists who study these or other texts associated with the Buddha's disciples or by the Buddha. What is more important: the very fact of thinking about such a creature we perform yoga.
38. Or [the consciousness], based on perception, [resulting] in a dream or in dreamless sleep 1.
Vyasa Comment: Either the consciousness of the yogi acquires a stable condition, having as the perception of support, [resulting] in a dream or in dreamless sleep, or his image.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: There is another method or approach, by which is achieved stop change of consciousness. This is when we begin to dream prophetic dreams. Thing is truly fantastic, and anyone who has experienced it, a long time will remember this state. Sometimes we have nightmares, sometimes something interesting, sometimes exciting, etc. - The whole spectrum. And we can wake up at night from a nightmare, and its power is the big thing.
But there is an aspect of dreams, which is in stark contrast with all those dreams, pleasant or unpleasant, with which we are familiar in everyday life.
As a result of yoga or for some other reasons, internal or external, sometimes a person experiencing such a condition that it is not just a dream. By their power of influence is a million times stronger than a dream. And it is so much a person absorbs, which actually is a whole experience, the whole world experience. If an ordinary dream leaves an imprint, but the imprint quickly dissipated, there is an imprint so strong that we can then sleep a week or two did not come to life and be so impressed by this dream that we will all head only one thought: this is a dream. And nothing else. Everything fades, disappears, and the enormity of the dream, its meaning, our feelings, sensations - this is akin to the state of samadhi, the state of such extreme exaltation caused by various spiritual exercises, but they occur in the dream state.
And if such things happen to us, our consciousness is stabilized.
Student: What does this mean?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This means that if, before this dream we had a million different thoughts that rassosredotachivali force of consciousness, then we are left with only one dominant thought - this is a dream, this experience, which we got. All others not to disappear, but they are small, dim. This one thought denies all other energy; if they are present, they are sluggish or not running comparison.
This aphorism has mentioned a dreamless sleep. This is generally a separate issue - a condition where there is an experience, a feeling, but there is no image. We kind of falls in this state beyond the images. But our self there present, our consciousness is unconscious, it is not clouded by waves. Present and consciousness and energy, we fall into something that's original state. However, unlike the dream, there is no reason, on which the waves of thoughts are running.
Sleep with dreams that we can inspire or make us a great impression - is, in fact, the waves in the mind, one or two, but very large. In the dream this aspect disappears without dreams, and we fall in the initial state - the unconscious. The imprint of this dream is also very strong.
39. Or through contemplation of that nice.
Comment Vyasa: [Yogi] should contemplate exactly what he likes. Reaching stability [consciousness] In this case, it reaches stability in other cases.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: This is a series of alchemists, astrologers and other ...
Someone is engaged in researches, someone - a scientific work, someone opens the secrets of the universe, someone deciphers ancient manuscripts and fonts, lost languages or trying to understand what it means to those or other moments. Someone like the Japanese philosophy of sitting among the rocks and contemplates a pleasant picture that unfolds, someone sits on the banks of the river and enjoys magnificent views, some enjoying views of the mountains, someone - with works of art, is a museum.
In each of these cases there is a natural focus: us something nice to look at, we can then concentrate on the phenomenon or object in a natural way, without any effort. Concentrating so we maintain only one idea, which is nice, and for a while forget about everything else. Thus, through this action we pleasantness develop our concentration, that is, reducing the number of adverse thoughts.
This is a great method, serious, more evident in the Tantras. You see a beautiful girl's body, you're nice to him to contemplate, you can concentrate on it for a long time. Of course, the absorption of your mind this way. Spiritual development is not contrary to the production of pleasure, which, unfortunately, sometimes try to imagine. Again in this case, however, we observe the following picture: we are obsessed with only one thought, and all the others go by the wayside. Once reaching this state and it is constantly renewing, we have the ability to focus on one thing, and in the future we can carry this ability to all the other things, even ones we observe unpleasant or neutral watch. As to develop the habit of deep concentration, then this mechanism can be transferred to other objects or phenomena.
Student: Are there things that are preferable to contemplate?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: It does not matter, object or action are subject to the concentration. The main thing that you are engrossed in something external, that gives you pleasure.
40. His power [applies to all] - from the atom to the greatest [of objects].
Comment Vyasa: [Yogi Consciousness] pronikayuschee1 in "thin" [object] becomes a stable condition, [extending to all the fine] down to the atom. Consciousness, penetrating in the "rough" [object], reaches stability, [applicable to all major] up to the greatest [the size of objects]. Thus, the lack of obstacles [to consciousness], functioning between these two limits, and there is a higher power. The consciousness of the yogi who has attained such power, no longer needs to be purified as a praktiki.Itak investigation, what is the own form of consciousness, gained their state of stability, what its objects and [stage] of concentration, says [in sutra]:
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: There is mentioned about the power, which is achieved by concentration of consciousness, concentration. This is an important point.
We are accustomed to energy methods. A truly respected force in this world. If you have the atomic bomb, are considered to be with you. If for you is the army, they respect you. If you are able to produce some action, you are also respected. The Soviet Union and Russia respected for strong arms, mobile army - is forced to reckon with us. Now, when it all fell apart, especially when it does not scare anyone, because the scope of the use of force fell sharply (you can not fight on a small planet large weapon, you're just going to break it into pieces), comes to the fore economic power.
What good to pay attention to Russia, if it is in economic terms is nothing of itself is not? What kind of a little over the years, Germany has become a great country, and already comes on the heels of all the remaining powers and superpowers? Same Japan after the war ... And we of ourselves can not imagine anything. And it is clear that if the US government says something, then listen to it, because a great-great energy resource is present in the form of money, military force, in the form of various forms of pressure.
This world is increasingly tied to the energy of manifestation. This is its strength and its weakness in this. Strength - all quite clearly, of lucre world: there is energy - there is talk, there is no energy - no conversation. But the weakness - in the one-sidedness of this view, such a position.
There reverse side displays any energy - is consciousness. And those abilities, that is power, which is in the shade. Now Koreans are going to attack, for example, and no one understands that the force they are not in power. Their state of mind is not supported by neither money nor weapons, nothing at all, but it is directed in such a way, that it becomes a real force. But the question is even a little bit different. The manifestation of the power of consciousness operates quietly. If the manifestation of the energy of power is always in sight, the consciousness imperceptibly. And its effect is two equal forces.
Western civilization addicted to the energy question, and the question of consciousness, they do not even understand. But back to the aphorism.
The yogi who has reached the methods of concentration and mind control that directs your mind to any object, phenomenon, person, country, or anything else in nature have full control over the object, not by power.
Student: How is controlled the object, he can do with it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Anything: destroy, create, cut - the same things that you could do with the help of energy.
We remember that consciousness and energy - are two sides of one and the same, which is manifested, in particular, as our "I". And in fact you begin to act in his "I", but in the consciousness aspect.
The fact is that everything that perceives and directs consciousness then begins to be: I will, I voleizyavlyayu. What does it mean? I see. I think I want to. I did not do in this case, pay attention. I do not force, I do not take the stick, I do not arrange camps that make remodel, I do not use a club, is not affected by some hard radiation or a flamethrower, that is not affected by energy. I act by something else.
Now I occasionally look through Western TV and to my surprise I meet program dedicated to the problems of yoga. Absolutely amazing! Now this idea has finally started to sound loudly. I watch this channel, and there trying to discover the secret of this great, new technology - the technology of consciousness. They fight like a fish on the ice, trying to expand the applications of this technology (they are specially chosen term technology) to infinity - by eliminating local conflicts around the globe to the global challenge for the reconstruction of society in the right way. That is now become the stuff of ancient texts reanimated and implemented in life. I see a real effort to do so. How successful they will be, I do not know.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because the world is not buying the consciousness of this world buys energy. Beguiled him on the methods of consciousness is very difficult, because the very mental preference is directed towards energy. There is an expression in the Vedas: if the wise man had a desire, he did nothing to implement it; the very fact that he was aware of it, sooner or later it was done.
I elaborated on this dictum, because Patanjali mentioned here might.
Sling consciousness aimed at a particular object, it completely controls but not energy methods.
Vyasa Comment: So, what is the own form of consciousness, gained their state of stability, what its objects and [stage] of concentration, says [in sutra]
41. Focusing is a state of "coloring" the [object] for which [the consciousness] is based, [that is] on the subject of knowledge, to knowledge and to the knowledge of the object, when the deployment [of consciousness] discontinued, as is the case with a precious stone.
Comment Vyasa: "When the deployment [of consciousness] terminated" means complete cessation of activity is conceptualized [consciousness] "As in the case of the jewel" - the use of an example.. Just as the crystal is painted in a particular color of different items that are used to it stand, and shows the external form of [its] color support, and consciousness, "colored" objects on which it is based, [as if] assimilated the object and It manifested as the appearance of their own form of the object. For example, it is "painted" thin element [consciousness] is assimilated by them and manifests itself as its own form of a thin element. In the same way, it is "painted" a gross object [consciousness] are assimilated to them and reflects a rough shape. Similarly, the "colored" universal difference [consciousness] is assimilated by them and becomes a reflection of the universal form.
Also it is to be understood in the case of cognitive processes and cognitive abilities. "Painted" learning process as its support, [consciousness] is assimilated by them and is manifested as the appearance of their own forms of knowledge process. Likewise [consciousness], "colored" Purusha - the subject of cognition - how their support, assimilated them and manifests as Purusha visibility own form - the subject of knowledge. Just being "painted" liberated Purusha as the mainstay of their [minds], like unto it, manifests itself as a form of appearance of its own liberated Purusha.
And so the mind, like a jewel when it is based on the subject of knowledge, [or] the process of cognition, [or] to the object of knowledge, [that is] in the Purusha, [or] on the senses, [or] on the [First ] items and when it is "painted" by them, [that is] based on them [then] takes the form of their manifestation. Such a [state of mind] is the concentration.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: First, I will explain that here the analogy with precious stones, to understand what it is.
There is a property of the precious stones, but actually as any transparent object. For example, a crystal vase. What color is it in itself?
Student: No. It is transparent.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes! But it's worth something to me at the bottom put a red, the red beams will be refracted, and this crystal vase will shine red. It will not be its own color, it's just a color re-emit. There is carried out the same analogy. This explains the principle of concentration.
But I want to comment further on this important aphorism.
So, we remember that when we feel the physical body (this is from the other yogas, in particular from the Tantra Yoga or Jnana Yoga), we fall under the scope of the physical body. We begin to suffer and enjoy only within the physical body.
If we feel the subtle body, we begin to suffer and enjoy in the framework of the subtle body.
If we think of ourselves as the causal body, we find ourselves in, respectively, the field of action of this body.
What think you are, and so you become.
If you think you are in this sense a slave, a slave and become. Consider yourself pushed into a small creature in this world, by and large they become.
On the one hand this statement is not universally accepted. Where is the logic here?
The second side. We remember that our "I" manifests itself through the consciousness and through the energy. With regard to energy, this all is clear: the energy is easy to see. But as the consciousness manifests itself? How to fix that consciousness manifests itself? And there is a fundamental limitation: no instrument which would define consciousness manifests itself or not. We can fix it only indirectly, for the energy that is in a particular aspect manifests. But consciousness itself, we can not measure, we can not grasp it, it is as if beyond this world.
The aphorism defines concentration. What is this concept? If there is a particular object or phenomenon is represented before the rays of consciousness, it seemed to be permeated by light of consciousness, and consciousness identifies itself with this object. Or, in another way. Our consciousness, like crystal: it is colorless, it has no qualities, but if put under the red cloth crystal, this crystal will shine red. And it would seem in the first place, the man himself, to "I" to the Purusha, his mind a red! Although in reality it is colorless.
Thus comes a concept such as the identification of: consciousness is identified with some kind of object. And being identified, respectively, he considers himself to them and enters the field of action of the object.
It is for this reason that we consider ourselves your gross body, if we are wild people. We see ourselves as your mental body or mental capabilities, if we "civilized" people. Every time consciousness is refracted through this object, painted the color of the object and considers himself to them. That's why we are afraid of death, that's why we cling to our bodies, because we are not able to separate the coloring of consciousness from the mind. And when our consciousness is colored by that or other object, it is focused on it. It takes the form of a single object, though that in itself does not form!
And here we come to a point: the mind at a certain stage of evolution identifies himself with the mind. Due to the fact that the mind is made from the finest substance, delicate matter, is in the immediate vicinity, so to speak, from the rays of consciousness, there is the identification of rays of consciousness with the mind, and there is an impression that the light of reason. But in fact, the mind is not able to shine, it can only refract the light of consciousness. By itself, the mind is not lit!
In Tantra there are mystical moments: the Moon - a symbol of the mind, and the sun - a symbol of Purusha, our "I", and it sometimes seems that the moon shines by its own light. In the same way a normal person in ordinary life, believes that his mind, his intellect shines with its own light. It helps in some cases business, work, survival, and it seems that this is the source of light. But the mind - just the reflective surface of the light that comes from our "I". That is our "I" emits light of our consciousness, which in turn is refracted and reflected in the mind. And only for this reason it seems lively, dominant.
We rely on the mind. We are all very sensible people, all perfectly well aware, we are very respectful to the mind, thus, forgetting that the mind - it is just a tool, thin enough, but a tool. In moments of eclipses, when the ideals of the "I", the ideals of the soul, if you are faced with the mind, we see that the light of the soul is eclipsed by the stone of the moon, that the mind - it is not really luminous and black object. We have always regarded him as a king, an ideal, idol, God, it's just a piece of stone. And it is experienced as a deep intuitive understanding of what we mentioned that our "I" above reason that the mind to a certain point, helping us, and from a certain moment - prevent us.
From this point we cease to suffer some anxiety, unrest, unsolved problems which we slip the mind. We suddenly realize that we can not respond to his questions, that he is wrong. This does not mean that we do not need him to hone, to trust him in every possible way to use it. No! We must do it, but we must be remembered that this is not the ultimate truth. That situation, which puts our mind - it's just a vision of the mind rather than what it actually is.
Then the man sighs with relief. If, before this world gathering over him paint, drove him into a corner, then after that the person understands that the mind - it's great, but the reason must be subordinated to the "I".
But back to the aphorism of Patanjali!
an object. In Patanjali simply defined a state of concentration - a clear illumination of the object. The object comes into rays of consciousness, consciousness is saturated with them, and we know about this subject, we perceive, we are focused on the object.
The second part of the aphorism tells us that if there is no object, which is absorbed by the consciousness, the consciousness of the rays are treated as would be back and begin to highlight the Purusha are starting to highlight our "I" that is truly extra-terrestrial. That is, consciousness is absorbed by the same "I" looking looking away. Then it is sent to the concentration on the very "I" is absorbed by itself.
The notion that you do not mind, is born with a great torment.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because we are, whether we like it or not, all his life used the mind subconsciously, uncritically, we still believe that the reason is "I".
And the process begins, usually with the fact that it becomes stuffy and cramped in the framework of the mind. Then it comes to the critical limit. This labor, labor painful. And when it comes to a critical point where escape has nowhere to go, sometimes it comes to understanding, in fact, is why.
Mind is represented as a tyrant. All life is represented as a tyrant. That is all as it tries to control you and enslave, but to act all the external things are only in the mind. They can not directly act on your "I". Your "I" above all, and as long as you, your "I" feels your mind, the real impact on you of these things can have, because you identify yourself with your mind, and get into the field of action of pains and pleasures of the mind.
Pulling the thread of one or the other or creating certain conditions, can make you suffer or enjoy. And so external factors act through the level of the mind.
The mind holds on to power very seriously. Condition is very painful. But that is another topic. Here, we have identified that there is a concentration.
42. Here, one focus "to the speculation" is devoid of distinctiveness because of the differences between the word and the concept of the object 2.
Vyasa Comment: For example, although the word "cow", the object "cow" and the term "cow" differ from each other, they seem to be inseparable in the cognitive process. The analysis [found that] the properties of the word - is one thing, the object properties - another, and the properties of the concept - the third. In other words, their ways of being razlichny.Esli with the yogi in a state of concentration of the object "cow", and so on. N., Caught in [the scope of its] focused comprehension, is related to the distinction between words, objects and concepts, something indistinct state of concentration It called "speculative" .However when memory [yogi] "cleared" from [any traces] of language conventions and concentrated comprehension free from [all] speculation, [arising from] the verbal testimony [or] the inference, the object appears only in that it is in itself, and is characterized by only a manifestation of his own form. And it is - non-discursive focus 3. It is the highest perception of how the seed of the verbal evidence and reasoning. And verbal evidence, and inference arise from it. Moreover, such a direct knowledge not coexist with the knowledge [obtained by] the verbal evidence or reasoning. Therefore, direct knowledge of the yogi, arising out of non-discursive concentration, not mixed with other sources of non-discursive poznaniya.Opredelenie concentration is clarified in the [next] sutra.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: In connection with this, I just want to say that's what. There are certain phenomena that we think we know, but there there is some misunderstanding, an illusion. Therefore, based on this knowledge, we generate future ignorance. That is, if you have the original data are wrong, how can you make the right conclusion? But then when sharpening concentration, sharpening memory of this or that phenomenon, manifestation, it is more and more clearly shows this or that object or phenomenon in its true light. Not in the way we perceive it, and in that light, which is closer to the true manifestation. And already on the basis of such blocks, the picture begins to converge slowly. We draw conclusions and behave on the basis of correct data.
Human nature, or more precisely the nature of man, is not engaged in spiritual cultivation, tend to forget everything, absolutely everything. He is the eternal race for some illusory benefits or performance of desires or some customs. This is called life - eternal rat scurry.
Man suffers just one characteristic feature - the lack of memory. And the second time when confronted with the same phenomena, it does not make the findings of the previous, and based on some false conclusions. This is the state of man when he runs, and it catches up with some grim wave of fear. And it seems to him that if he would not run on, it will cover it. This is a typical condition of rajas.
If a person begins to draw conclusions, this race is already beginning to be aware, meaningful and effective. But for this it is necessary to sharpen the impression, to get rid of the illusory, misconceptions, that is, to clarify the situation. Then to my surprise, we see how much we are doing much fuss in terms of inefficiency. A large number of concepts we have in untested as they reach us, and we accept them uncritically, is absorbed in the form in which they have reached us. We did not bother to even think about, and suddenly they have reached us in a distorted form?
If we perceive the object itself, regardless of its names, labels and descriptions, but simply, directly, when we do get the knowledge about the object, knowledge of its true value. We are already out of delusion in which we were before when we just passed this knowledge. Directing attention to the object of our consciousness is colored light of the object, and we grasp the whole inner being, all the intricacies of relations between parts of the whole object, all the information that we just might learn from it. We have to really, from my own experience, we know that it (the object) is all about. When a lot clearer in relation to objects or phenomena in human life is changing, he starts to behave differently.
43. The non-discursive [concentration there is a state of mind, when it is] completely cleared from memory, as if deprived of its own form, showing only the object.
Comment Vyasa: non-discursive focus has a [state of mind] when under memory Peeled linguistic conventions of verbal evidence, reasoning, concepts and mental design comprehension, "colored" their own form of the perceived object, as if leaving his comprehension of the form, which is in its essentially the process of cognition, becomes its own form of the referent, ie the perceived object itself. Similarly, it has been explained [in sutra] .For this [concentration] world [external objects] - the cow, etc., or pot, etc., -.... [Which] in its essence is a specific form of the compound of atoms 1 [As] the internal shape of the object, is [the content of] a single mental act. And this specific form, which, in essence, is a general property of thin elements established by inference on the basis of the visible consequences, [that is, the external object], manifested through its empirical expression. It disappears with the appearance of other qualitative certainty, [for example] the cup, and so on. D. This quality-specific substrate called integrity. This [integrity] is that [there is a] single, large or small, as a tangible or having the ability to action, or non-eternal. [All] and practical activities carried out with the holistic [subject] .However for the one who denies the reality of this particular compound [atoms] imperceptible due to "thin" in the non-discursive reason [concentration], almost all acquired knowledge is false, because the non-existence of a false knowledge is not based on its form. How, then, might the true knowledge, so far as its object does not exist? All that is perceived, seen as integrity. Consequently, the whole which gets in the ordinary discourse of [name] "large", "small", and so on. N., There is a [real]. It's the subject of non-discursive acts of concentration.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: It is difficult, of course, comment on, but I will say two words.
If we want to get first-hand information, or directly on the subject, we must at some point, take it out of those prints that run parallel.
There is a lot of information on a plurality of channels, and one overlaps the other: the name tells me about this site is one thing, but I see it as something completely different. This hodgepodge of sometimes occurs as a result produced a completely third representation of the object.
When we focus on an object cleanly, without paying attention to its attributes, then, of course, comes another vision.
44. In the same way explained reflexive and non-reflexive, having a "thin" object [concentration].
Vyasa Comment: Of these [two] focus on "thin" elements whose properties are manifested and defined experience of space, time and operational reasons, called refleksivnym.V this case also "thin" element of perceived single mental act and specified quality of cash certainty is that support on which is based the yogic postizhenie.V turn, concentration, always and in all respects connected [with the "subtle" elements] who are deprived [of any kind whatsoever] specification through the "extinct", arising out of or undetectable properties, [but which nevertheless] accompanied by all properties are the inner essence of all properties - [this concentration] is a non-reflexive. As such it is in its nature, "thin" element becomes therefore support the yogic attainment, and which "painted" his own form. When comprehension as it is deprived of its own form and acts as the "only entity", it is called a non-reflexive.
From these [four species] discursive and non-discursive [concentration] has as its subject "gross" real objects, and reflexive and non-reflexive [concentration] - "thin". And thus, with the help of non-discursive [concentration] explained two [last kind of concentration] when there is no conceptualization.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: In a nutshell, we can say that there are gross and subtle objects.
You can concentrate on the gross manifestations, and it is possible - on the matrices on which they built crude manifestations.
45. The property of being "thin" is the object of [his] limiter "no sign" 1 [as the initial state of the root causes].
Comment Vyasa: "Thin" object earth atom - tanmatra smell [atom] water - tanmatra taste [atom] fire - tanmatra color [atom] wind - tanmatra touch [atom] Akasa - tanmatra sound 2. Principle of individuation as [reason may also serve as a "delicate" subject to yogic concentration]. In turn, his "thin" object - "just-sign" 3, [that is, the first stage of the evolution of the root causes]. "The absence of the characteristic" [as a cause] "attribute-only" also [may act] "thin" the object of [concentration], but above the "no sign" of "thin" But do not suschestvuet.- no Purusha as "thin" [essence] ? - that's right, but that "subtlety" of the Purusha is not of the same order as the "fineness" "no indication" in relation to "higher ground". Purusha is not the cause generating it - the reason for [target] .Otsyuda becomes clear that the "thinness" reaches its limit in pradhani, [that is, the root cause].
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: To begin with, what we remember. We can focus on objects rough, but rough objects have thin objects.
Full of all sorts of tales about all-powerful yogas in the East, which really work wonders, living in some fantasy world of her and enjoy some properties and functions of its perception and environmental properties of the universe that we completely incomprehensible and seem to be quite wonderful. In this sense, the entire list of super-powers, which demonstrates a yogi, it seems to us, rather, contrary to common sense and the overall picture of the physical world. But in fact, in the yoga exercises, within this conglomerate of knowledge is all quite logical conclusion. That is, any supernormal ability is not something obscure, fantastic, and this is a kind of conclusion from the theory of world order.
We remember that everything that surrounds us - is a gross elements perceived by ordinary human organs of perception. Each rough element has its own properties. We list the gross elements: earth, water, fire, air, ether. Five basic elements that make up the whole universe is rough. And, in fact, even modern scientists who simply analyze the world around us, in a sense, analyze the gross elements, even, perhaps, in some of their unusual forms.
But yoga says we are more complicated than we think, and that the greatest research tool of the outside world - it is our consciousness. In this sense, yoga does not need an external laboratory with some chemical reagents and facilities, microscopes and telescopes. Enough to have his own body. Thus, our body - is in itself a brilliant tool for the knowledge of the outside world.
And, that, for every rude manifestation are subtle manifestations after a long-long practice comes the knowledge about the background of foreign matter.
There are gross manifestations of earth, water, fire, air and ether, which from the point of view of modern physics we might be classified according to the degree of compaction energy.
It is clear that the energy of the most densely compressed, frozen, condensed in the solid, and modern science confirms it. The famous Einstein's formula that the energy contained in the volume of materials is directly proportional to its mass multiplied by the square of the speed of light. And the expression obtained in joules. In other words, one gram of the substance, if we could out of it to make a bomb or a hand grenade, have berated the globe in the down and feathers.
And so on for the seal.
But in yoga there is another classification: for each gross manifestation is the subtle expression. These are the kind of high-quality property. Moreover, it is involved in some kind of a personal manifestation of the sense organs.
It is believed that the main distinguishing element is the smell of the earth.
There are some "rays of feelings." We've learned that we have five senses, and on a subconscious level, we believe that this is just a derivative of the physical matter. But a deeper examination it turns out that this is the essence of some of the fundamental properties of the universe that manifest these five basic qualities. That is not something incidental, derivative, and something basic, fundamental. And when it manifests the fundamental quality, in a rough form it "acquires", is converted into one or another element of the rough.
Student: So why the quality of the land - the smell, the water quality - is the taste?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is the philosophy of Sankhya. They have their explanations, their logical construction, I do not want to touch them, so we do not get confused. Just to start to understand what is, and then look in more detail.
When we consider the smell, we can consider the whole chain chemical Behold any substance flew, settled on the mucous membrane of the nose, some electrical signal is identified, that went to the brain, and we classify it as a smell.
But our "I" that perceives pulses of information anyway, because even the vision comes in the form of pulses, even the sense of touch comes in the form of pulses. So these pulses are divided into five parts, five colors: one is responsible for the odor, the other - for the vision, the third - for a touch of the fourth - for the taste for fifth - touch, hearing the vibration. We perceive nerve impulses painted, that is a kind of color pulse, an algorithm of constructing these pulses.
Here is a very interesting property: if the algorithm for constructing the pulse becomes more coarse and manifested on the gross level of matter, this same algorithm, the elements are built on the same law. It is very difficult to understand the subject ...
Take a piece of cloth and see on what basis it is constructed. For example, the ground.
We will begin to dismantle it look like there the energy is sealed and done, and in the end we will find the same algorithm, which gives us the momentum, that is the same color of energy, which gives us the quality of the odor. That is, there is an abstract idea, whether that - the idea of building. Therefore, a property of matter is the smell, the taste of water is the property, the property is a vision of fire, air touch property, property of ether, space - sound.
It is rather an experienced fact of the practice of yoga. Yoga practiced for a long time, and then for them it became so obvious as obvious to us all that we see around us. That is, they initially lived like ordinary people, and then began to do yoga, they have sharpened perception, and they began to perceive some things that a normal person does not perceive. If accepted and classifying them, they saw a pattern and this pattern they explained and recorded.
We still do not have such a delicate scent, a subtle recognition of the property, we have to take it all for granted, as we do in life will not repeat this experience. And we will repeat, because it is a kind of stepping stone in the development of yoga, when we start, let's contemplate this or that element of the rough, we will sooner or later come to the awareness behind it a thin element.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Rather than as an abstract idea, but as a real experience. We are really in with the help of consciousness calculate or share this indivisible sections tanmatras - "building blocks" from which built this or that property. And then everything will fall into place, all will be clear and understandable, and to this we have to believe every word.
If we begin to meditate (meditation are on rough forms and manifestations are thin) on the gross manifestations of earth, water, fire, air and ether, we will sooner or later turn to the awareness and understanding of the subtle elements from which gross manifestation built.
Student: How is this happening?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This property of our consciousness.
If our mind is directed to one or another element, the element is forced, so to speak, to show off, to show how it's done. And from the point of view of yoga is just as real as experienced by our senses.
Then Patanjali mentioned one more thing: as if the Purusha in this respect, some so subtle point or is it something more rude? And in the comments of Vyasa on this occasion to say something. But now, let's not talk about it. Let's go further!
46. That they [these types of concentration] is the concentration of having a seed.
Vyasa Comment: These four [kinds of] concentration [of consciousness] have "seeds" 1, [that is] real external objects, and thus, the concentration is also endowed with the seed. There discursive and non-discursive [concentration] - to "rough" object and a reflexive and non-reflexive - to "thin". In other words, there are four kinds of concentration.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: I'm not going to explain each separately, and will go further faster.
So, there are two kinds of concentration. We have already mentioned this, but I will repeat casual. Because they are important in the long run to achieve absolute success in yoga.
There is a concentration so-called "a seed" is the concentration of "seedless".
Student: What does this mean? How it should be understood?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Is the concentration of which is in the cycle of karma, the cycle of cause and effect, that is, one act begets another action. Similarly, concentration.
four kinds of concentration are listed here, all of them with the seed, when we focus, any focus carries its effect, and the effect of concentration - it's good karma. Still karma!
In this sense, any concentration, even so subtle that we will bring good karma - is still focusing with karma, because there karma seeds, which can then unfold as good circumstances of our lives.
At first glance it may please us, but the Yogi pays little attention to this, because it rejects both bad karma, and good. He tends to the state without karma, he wants to get out of this cycle at all.
In this case, it can help only the concentration without seed.
Any action, in particular the concentration of a seed - it's like a gear, one gear rotates another gear.
But there is a fundamentally different concentration, when the mind is absorbed by the Purusha, when our mind is absorbed in our own essence, which is out of this world. And each such absorption - it's like a tooth knocked out "gear" karma. In the future we will at least one step becomes free, we have a, if you will, to maneuver, but just out of this world, out of this cycle of seeds, these seeds which reproduce in the future.
In this sense, any concentration, which leads to the superpowers, which leads to the comprehension of tanmatras that leads to the comprehension of the time, the knowledge of all aspects of the universe thin device - good karma, but all the same karma. It is in this sense, this concentration is called "a seed".
47. When non-reflexive mastery in [concentration arises] inner peace.
Comment Vyasa: mastery - it is a clear, non-perturbing for Sattva intelligence, the essence of which - the light, [she] is free from contaminants [her] obstacles and is not subject to the predominant influence of Rajas and Tamas. When there is such a non-reflexive skill in concentration, then the yogi comes unshakable inner peace [ie | open light of wisdom, is not related to the [usual] steps [of the process of learning and seeing] the object such as it exists in reality. In this regard, said: "Just as the [person], standing on top of the mountain, sees all that are in the plain, the one who has found the light of wisdom, [he] is not affected by grief, he sees people in [their] suffering." 1
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: This is a continuation of the explanation states.
There is a stereotype that the yogi must be "freezed", like a boa constrictor. To round from happening, rather, it must appear before us as a straight beam, rather than a person involved in the case. To a certain extent this stereotype emerged from the real manifestations of this here is the ability, when one long practice to cleanse your body by inertia, by blunt animal existence by Rajas, activity, and then brought this activity to such a limiting condition that the activity itself, too, died away. Then comes the state of sattva.
Imagine that a person is living under a palm tree in the wild existence, eating roots, in a general way of life of the animal is completely stupid that do not understand anything. Then the pain and inconvenience of life forced him to take some steps, actions. He begins to collect coconuts, the nearest village to carry, sell them to buy something, build a store for the sale of coconuts, then a factory for processing of coconuts in some coconut milk, then it opens its representative office in America. Europe, Asia, becoming a businessman, constantly flying in Tokyo, in Moscow, in Paris, everywhere is trying to push its coconut milk. Then he makes a global company that dominates the entire globe and all have literally filled up the product. Then he realizes that one can not cope, starting to recruit managers who instead run, jump, and he in general is involved in business, but smaller. He himself more than watching. Then, the company grows and grows, managers are more and more. There comes a state when he sits in his office and does nothing. All managers do. The entire company is working like clockwork. He knows the whole process from start to finish, from the coconut pickers who climb on the palm trees, and the last work of the manager, which manages, will this batch of goods in Hong Kong or the United States or Mexico. He knows everything, but he does nothing. He can get to any part of this process is to collect the coconuts can be an accountant in the firm, and perhaps some performing director. He knows the whole process thoroughly, and he seems to be watching him, seeing how this whole process is spinning. He will no longer have to do anything, he just sits, rejoices, enjoys life. This state of sattva.
Here's an analogy. I do not know good or bad, but it largely reflects the position of yoga, in which the light of sattva consciousness shines so much that he sees things in their true light, no matter what the phenomenon ever came, he saw, and the causes of this phenomenon, and effect. And if he does something, he does the minimum, he observes. It is somewhat removed from the outside world. He understands it in the long run there is little surprise.
Student: And what is happening at the level of our body?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Our mind also pass such a metamorphosis, transformation. At first, our mind is inert and motionless - he tamas. We by Rajas Tamas purify it from, but it becomes very active, even too active, he seemed to be dirty rajas. When we clear the rajas through practice, the mind begins to be in its own form and its own form of intelligence - it is sattva.
When the universe, matter and energy was created, which in fact is the same, the beginning colored in three different spectrum. When the matter was in the sattva, the mind has been built from it. When the matter highlighted in rajas of it is our subtle body, our body senses were built. When the matter highlighted in Tamas property, it has become a matter of fact, we see around us, and the matter of our body. In the future, the mind is eclipsed feelings rajas and tamas body.
The causal body stands out, it intersects somewhere in mind, it is a slightly different classification, the classification in terms of the Sankhya philosophy.
There is still such a step, where Purusha, our ultimate "I" feels separate from the whole. This, if anything, the sixth step, a sixth sense, but it does not actually feel. It is also called Ahamkara, samoobosoblennost.
So, the mind in the state of sattva - is the mind in its natural state. This is a very important point, because even if you meet something in a very rude of its manifestations, though his mind was still composed of sattva. Reason - it is what spread rays of consciousness.
Just as the light in a dark room highlights, and instantly everything becomes visible, clear and understandable, just, and consciousness has the same property: everything whatever comes to mind, is displayed, it becomes visible, clear and understandable. This feature of our "I" have a conscience, which makes clear everything with which it comes into contact.
But the mind is covered with a veil of Rajas and Tamas.
When the human mind is in sattva, it really is in the unshakable calmness. Whatever happened, he was calm. But this happens only when the mind is in a state of sattva.
Here I look at some Hollywood movie where they show some mordovorotov with Olympic serenity of watching how it pret any ugly mug who wants to eat. And it is - a "James Bond", he has neither hand nor foot will not falter, this ugly mug he somehow fill up there. And for some reason, all the impression that he is in a state of sattva. He is not in the state of sattva, tamas just had blocked some analytic functions. If they were not blocked, it would be very bad because he began to worry about all the consequences of meeting with this creature. That is a rough form of existence of man becomes a blunt instrument.
Or they say about a man: "He has nerves instead of the ropes." But it only seems so because they are clouded by Tamas, it seemed to have made an injection of anesthetic, it just does not feel anything, he'd be happy to feel something, but can not. Rajas it has evolved to fill the creature, but on the other side of feelings, perceptions clouded Tamas, so it looks like Superman. And then begins a very interesting thing, he begins to develop, and this is his show of composure disappears somewhere.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: The mind begins to develop, Tamas scattered, and he himself has a very uncomfortable feeling, though perhaps a few years ago was a very tough nut to crack.
So ostentatious composure that we see does not always speak of the predominance of sattva. It says, rather, the predominance of Tamas.
And if you have a man rises to the level of sattva, it is really cool. Indeed, even if it rushing this thing, it is a position of sattva, rajas advantage, it does something. This is the absolute perception. Extremes are similar in outward appearance, but the gap between them.
48. Wisdom, [newfound] at the same time, [called] "carrying the truth."
Comment Vyasa: Wisdom, the problems of the [individual] consciousness is concentrated, is called "carrier truth ''. And this is [the term] is clear in itself: [wisdom] 2 carries only the truth; there is no error and impurities. In this regard, it said: "Through the doctrinal texts, inference and zealous practice of contemplation - these three ways he [Yogi], acquires wisdom and highest yoga" .But this [wisdom] ...
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: Once again!
By itself, the ability to concentrate leads to the fact that the consciousness of the rays are focused on a particular subject and the object reveals itself to consciousness. That is consciousness knows everything about this property. As a consequence it comes what is called wisdom.
Vyasa Comment: But this [wisdom]
49. in view of the nature of their focus has a different object than wisdom [newfound] on the basis of what he heard, or on the basis of inference.
Comment Vyasa: [Wisdom] on the basis of what he heard - [is] the knowledge of the doctrinal texts 1, it has a shared object, because with the help of agama, [that is, the doctrinal text], you can not pass special. Why is that]? Because the word is not a product of conditional agreement [made] on the basis of special. Similarly, the inference as only a general object. [For example]: wherever there is a finding of [new location] is and movement; no finding [new location], there is no movement - so it is said. By inference [we do] output from the total. Therefore, no special (single) is not subject to or logically vyvedennogo.Tochno heard as [no] "thin", hidden or remote object can not be known by ordinary perception, but [at the same time] can not [say] that this single [object] does not exist due to the fact that he is unavailable by conventional means poznaniya.Sledovatelno, special, whether it refers to "thin" entities or Purusha, it is an object of yogic attainment. Therefore, this wisdom due to the nature of its orientation has a different object than wisdom [newfound] on the basis of what he heard, or on the basis of logical vyvoda.U yogi gained their concentration wisdom sanskar, [that is, forming a factor] created [this] wisdom is reproduced again and again.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Note: This aphorism - in the course of certain philosophical debates that took place during the time of writing both the treatise and the comments to it. In yogic public discussions were held, it was developed some its approach to the different descriptions, common ground. Here, the reference to a greater extent on them.
In short the essence of the aphorism. If we focus our mind, or focus on a particular object or phenomenon, we perceive it. This immediate comprehension.
But to comprehend this or that object or phenomenon, we could in another way: to read about something in the books, hear or infer. And in fact, in both cases, that is when we could read, hear or withdraw logically, it would be the same wisdom, we would have known about this or that phenomenon, but it is, if you will, indirectly, an indirect approach.
An example of such. I can hear that America is. I can infer that it is. I take a bottle of Coke and logically deduce that in another country someone this drink is made. Do I get wisdom: I've never been in America, I have never seen it, but I either logically deduced that it is, or me someone said about this.
But I can go there and see for himself. And this wisdom is closer to the truth.
50. Forming a factor generated by this [wisdom], it is an obstacle to the other forming factors,
Comment Vyasa: formative factor generated by concentrating the wisdom of blocks hidden tendencies have manifested form factors. As a result of overcoming any form of content generated by the factors of consciousness cease to exist. Upon termination of cognitive processes comes a state of concentration, then - the wisdom generated by the concentration. From it [there] generated by the wisdom of forming factors. And so again and again played undercurrent form factors. Among them - the wisdom, and from it - forming factors 1.- But [explain that] is the predominance of form factors is not activity consciousness - These form the factors leading to wisdom, do not confer consciousness [his usual] function, for they are eliminate the cause affects. They [as it were] free the mind from its own activities, for awareness activity ceases [with the acquisition] higher razlicheniya.Chto still happening to him?
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: This is an interesting aphorism, I want to dwell on it in more detail.
So we know that yoga burn karma. We know that the concentration in itself leads to the attainment of good karma. We know that sooner or later the number of these thought forms in your head is reduced by focusing in the future is just a thought form of this or that object, and then it disappears when the concentration begins without a seed, or when the mind is absorbed Purusha, or our consciousness absorbed by itself.
Until such time as we focus, to the point where we have reached such a state that we can practice concentration, that is yoga, we managed to heap all sorts of affairs, we have created a lot of reasons for future consequences. And every effect is just waiting in the wings to unfold. It is still there, it is out there, in the register, is waiting for his turn. As soon as the time is right to make this investigation unfolded, it will unfold.
There is a desert somewhere in Africa. Every four years there is rain. He goes about two weeks, a month, and only wet out there. So this month the desert, which was completely dry and lifeless for four years, suddenly magically covered with grass, grows a huge amount of herbs and flowers. It's a miracle. It lasts for a month, and then, when all the water is drained, dry, all again transformed into the same sand, but only with the difference: in the meantime managed to give flowers tiny seeds, and they fell into the sand. Outwardly, they do not differ from the sand - such as dry and unattractive. Moreover, you can go for the next year in the same desert, thinking that this year will be like, you come, and nothing like this. You arrive in a year, and nothing again, you come to the third year, and nothing again. And you think that this was a one-time miracle. But, nevertheless, this is not a one-time miracle, a miracle is waiting for just the rain that comes with a certain periodicity.
Similarly, our karma: once she blossomed riotous color, gave seeds, then conditions have changed dramatically, and it kind of disappeared. And it seems to us that it is no longer in principle and can not - so it's different. But if we get to the previous conditions, it instantly out of nowhere suddenly grows.
This property, which was well known and understood in yoga, analyzed in detail. He says it's about the fact that all the fruits of our actions live in this repository of karma, and as soon as the advancing favorable conditions for deployment, they will not hesitate to turn around. That is why karma is so insidious. Sometimes it seems like it would not, and she sits back and waits for the moment. So by the hour, as we begin to focus, we have time to do a lot of things. These seeds lie in the sand and are only droplets of moisture to germinate.
We begin to focus, and there is an interesting scenario. For example, the seeds of karma we have, go favorable conditions, flowed "Rains", and now those seeds need to germinate. But if our mind is directed (focused) on something else, it does not automatically allow the seeds to germinate the future, even in favorable conditions. It actually is not a karma thing Self-existing, it's just the law of the use of our own energy. If we deprive it of its power, nothing will ever sprout, even if they sverhblagopriyatnye conditions.
If we focus, our mind focuses on a certain object, and after the consciousness is energy. It does not give karma spread. Karma is no longer valid, it is not able to germinate. The favorable situation lasts, but it is not eternal. It should be her last for a month, and if you spent this month in the concentrated state, time - and all gone again! This karma has not given shoot, did not let the future of seeds, rather than giving them, it is doomed to not resurface. Thus it is possible to burn karma.
If at this time the mind wanders, then the karma of his capture, take energy from it will sprout and double flowers. And if you're the moisture that falls on you, these favorable conditions are using on chto-to another, she runs, jumps, fussing around you, waving his arms and legs, and you sit impassive, without getting involved, and make it nothing can.
Karma is not unlimited, it has a period of time during which the last favorable conditions, then the "rainy season" runs, again a winter or summer, when everything is dry, and this karma already naturally can not appear, you did not give her to turn around, you won it.
There is a beautiful expression: "The seeds of karma are calcined at a concentration of fire." "Warm up" the seeds do not produce fruit, they have the conditions there, but there is no result. In Patanjali primarily karma is seen as a mark on the mind, samskaras. And if we do not get this printout, there is no karma.
Vyasa Comment: What's happening to him?
51. When troubleshooting, and this [the forming factor comes] focus, "deprived of the seed," because all [the activity of consciousness] stopped.
Vyasa Comment: It [the concentration, "deprived of the seed '] is not only the opposite of wisdom concentration, but also an obstacle to forming factors created [this] mudrostyu.- Why - form factor generated by the termination of [the activity of consciousness], hinders the deployment of forming factors generated by the concentration. The reality of the existence of the formative factors leading to "stopped" consciousness, can be derived from the experience of the flow of time, during which the termination remains stable [activities of consciousness] 1. Consciousness with forming factors arising from an updated and terminated concentration and leading to absolute isolation dissolves in its permanent root cause. Therefore, these factors form the opposing functions of consciousness, do not serve the cause of its preservation. Because of this consciousness, the function of which is completed, stops the activity with forming factors leading to absolute isolation 2. When it is stopped Purusha is in his own form, [and] therefore called pure, completely separate, osvobozhdennym.Pervaya chapter "On concentration" in Patanjali's treatise on yoga, [bearing the name] "Statement of Sankhya," finished.
Vadim Zaporozhtseva Comment: Also a wonderful aphorism! This is the last aphorism of the first chapter. And I will dwell on it.
First, as an example, I cite the previous aphorism unfolding karma.
I - an alcoholic, I do not dry out for forty years in a row, I drank all that is possible and impossible to drink, I generally could not live without drinking. And then a miracle happened, I started to practice yoga, and decided it was time to tie with this case. A terrible effort of will, I forced myself not to drink, do yoga. The first month was especially bad, the first six months it was pandemonium. Then it became easier, then two, three, four, I suddenly realized that I no longer want to drink. I changed the company, I am not in the wine stores, I avoid them, do not want to go there, I have other interests. I started concentrating, but forty years of continuous alcohol were not in vain, the seeds of karma in my brain is. I already think it is no longer subject to this all, when the circumstances are such that at one point I find myself in the wine cellar. Around me vodka, wine, beer, some people drink it all, I offer. That is, I suddenly find myself involved. These seeds are in me, of course, waking up: "Well, what about the men on the three did not understand?" But I do yoga. I sat up, focused on any object and began to meditate on it. I begin to guide your mind to this object and thereby automatically pull your mind out of the perception of the entire company with alcohol. And here I am to stay there for three hours, but I sent my mind is on the selected object and no longer perceive the environment. In this sense, I neutralized and burned karma, I suppressed samskaras awakening, desire. But during this concentration I thought of Stein, or the Divine, that is, at this time my focus was a seed, and as a result of this concentration, I reap good karma, direct and indirect.
Indirect - the one that I got involved in negative karma, and direct - one that, thinking about this or that object, I get the wisdom of this object, the amount of my thoughts are reduced and inner pleasure increases. Nevertheless, all this wisdom and the concentration was a concentration with seed. It leads to its fruits, to the good, but the fruit.
And the last aphorism Patanjali says: "What next?" And then, when we begin to focus not on an external object, and Purusha, or on your own "I", that is concentration deprived of seed, and it knocks out the foundation and good karma, not to mention the already poor. If I focused on my mind, I'm definitely more effectively erased the negative karma. But more than that: I erased and positive karma, I do not give even turn the wisdom of focusing on the object.
This is a famous saying in yoga - yogi does not seek the good karma, it is good karma neutralize bad and then abandons all karma. Or even a nice aphorism: if you drove a thorn in the foot and hurt you, then you take another thorn, pick out her first, and then either throw.
It is this logic must be understood that when our consciousness is absorbed by our Purusha, our "I", at this moment, and we are destroying the good karma too. In our minds there are no attributes, and if there are attributes, then it is not our consciousness. It is in a sense immaterial, it is truly something magical and college. One could say that it is not, but we can not say, because it is there, and every man for himself it can prove. I did not for another, and he was for himself, because it seems like there are no by an external person. Here is a very interesting subtlety.
Looking at the man who is sitting and meditating, nobody outside can not prove that he has the knowledge that he is the Purusha, because they are beyond this world, it does not possess the qualities it out. It can neither touch nor feel, nor analyze. That's what we are. The man knows what he is. I can doubt everything, but the only thing I'll never doubt - that I am. This is the starting point on which sit yoga.
So, when my mind is focused on me really, I stop all karma that I have and the bad, and good, I break out all the teeth of the gears, so I kind of dead to the outside world. Yes, was the previous carrier of my mind - my body, as if it is half alive, but I'm somewhere else, or rather I am is all I'm obsessed with itself. This condition prevents the unfolding of a bad karma, that is, our actions, painted Tamas, Rajas, and good karma, which manifests itself in the form of a wisdom, or that knowledge.
I am beyond knowledge. Knowledge is no more. I went beyond knowledge. Knowledge - is that in this world, and I got out of this world, I absorb by itself.
My step further - I can come back later to this state, and from that moment I was not due to karma. All I burned karma!
Once a being absorbed and returned, my every further step it poses is not due to karma. More precisely, it is obtained as follows: if I used to be monolithic, after this experience, I would like inside burned, and the emptiness inside me. I can do all things. I can go wherever I want to, I can live the way I want. There remains a small envelope in the form of the body, which is subject to karma and causes a bit of my existence, forcing me to his feeding, etc.
The most interesting is that from now on there is no concept of suicide. You can easily cut my throat. And if yoga is said that there is no more stupid things than suicide, then from that moment, when he worked out everything that could give the human body, it ceases to have any role to play. I can dissolve the body in glowing terms, I can move to the higher planes. The body will die. And it does not matter, I dissolved it in glowing terms, or cut his throat. It is in this case and in other ceases to exist, and in both cases it is actually killing body. But it is clear that a fundamental difference to dissolve in glowing terms after the implementation.
So inside I kind of empty, but the body continues to dovypolnyat your karma.
Ramakrishna, said half of his life in a state of samadhi. Very curious about its history, it is very revealing as a living example for us. They say, preserved the house where he first experienced this state of unqualified samadhi, when the mind is absorbed in the absolute vnemirovom experience. He really experienced this condition. At first he is very easy to reach the state of samadhi with one object in mind when a thought-form, and it is very high in itself a state. The person experiencing it, too dead to others.
Then his teacher taught him of nirvikalpa samadhi, samadhi without qualities, when the mind comes out of this world. And Ramakrishna, when Master initiated him into it, three days spent in a state of samadhi without an object, not eating, not sleeping, pulse barely palpable. His teacher even very surprised that this way, the first time out.
Then Ramakrishna decided to spend at least half a year in this state. And indeed, I entered into this state and stayed there for months. If his people were fed, maintaining the shell, then to consciousness could go back into the body, then the body would disintegrate.
The body can not long exist without consciousness, just as a house can not be long without a host. We can go on vacation, we can go for a year, two, three, but then the house starts to fall apart just quietly. Similarly, the human body: if a person is a long time it is not, then it breaks. According to the testimony, Ramakrishna said that this period is equal to twenty-one day. If a person is in this state for more than three weeks, it is an irreversible decay of the body. But most interesting is that he spent in this state for more than three weeks, and then came back, and then he became a recognized teacher.
Student: Why is he back?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: The only reason he came back - it's only in order to help others and teach others.
He returned several times a day, fell into samadhi, then returned, he taught pupils communicated. That is half of life then fell into this state. According to his will, he could not do hatha yoga exercises. Because as soon as he took a particular position, immediately raised the vital energy, and he spontaneously fell into samadhi. He could, for example, reflect that when he began to explain some aspects of philosophy and reached a certain point, his mind instantly absorbed by this state itself, and it fell into samadhi. It was absolutely fantastic person and I believe that we know the saints, which are preserved testimonies of people, it was one of the most fantastic personalities. Moreover, he lived not so long ago.
Once you come out of this state, you can live in this world and at any time as you wish to go into samadhi. Moreover, I read in a book about Ramakrishna, his teacher, who initiated him into the state of samadhi, he could go to him and entered several times, but he makes a great effort of will. It took about 40 years to perfect your body, your body, so that at any moment he could in this state at will go. Then he returned and lived as an ordinary man.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: While acting a little bit of maya, illusion, obscuring as Rajas and Tamas, a man comes out of samadhi, his mind is no longer absorbed by the Atma, and is directed outward, and he lives a normal life. But as soon as he willed direct inward consciousness, he again enters into a state of samadhi. This is a truly are living examples.
All! Thus ends the first chapter of the treatise of Patanjali.
About the concentration (SAMADHIPADA)
30.1. The Sanskrit text dhatu. here - in the sense of humors or humoral components. The Indian medical tradition is vayu (air or wind), pitta (bile) and kapha (phlegm or mucus), which maintains the balance of the organism vital functions. Any violation of equilibrium (vaisamya) leads to disease. More about Indian classical medical concepts, see. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. II, p. 325-333].
30.2. As noted in his commentary Vacaspati Mishra, the body weight (kayasya giirutva) due to the predominance of phlegm (kapha) and other elements, and the severity of consciousness, ie its inactivity (apravrtti), -.. Tamas. See, [TV I, 30, p. 35].
30.3. Faulty vision (bhrantidarsana) is knowledge (jnana), containing a false component (viparyaya) .30.4. The Sanskrit text atabdhabhumikatva.
31.1. The Sanskrit text, respectively adhibhautika and ddhidaivika. For details, see. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. 1, p. 269, n. I]. In the dictionary of Apte is given a different interpretation.
31.2. The Sanskrit text angamejayatva.
32.1. Here Vyasa is referring to the Buddhist concept of consciousness as a continuous stream of successive discrete contents of consciousness (or, as Vyasa said, pratyayamatram). Avg. classical definition of consciousness (or rather, group consciousness), which leads Vasubandhu in his "Encyclopedia - Abhidharma»: vijiianam prativijnapti (I. 16), ie, "consciousness is the consciousness of each [object]"... "Awareness of each object," grasp "[its net cash] is a group consciousness (vijnanaskandha). This group consists of six kinds of consciousness - visual, etc., to the mental consciousness (manovijnana) inclusive "[AKB I. 16, p... II]. Thus, the system abhidharmistskoy philosophy of consciousness (vijnana) is interpreted as a result of the process of obtaining information (vijnapti) of each object (visayam visayam prati). Here the word "consciousness" passed the technical term vijnapti, which means "making known", ie. E. The result of becoming famous. Vijnapti, in turn, is defined as "receiving" representations of the object cash integrity. The word "receive" the technical term is transmitted upalabdhi, denoting the concept of "setting only object» (vastu-matra-grahanam;. Pratyayamatram cf. the commentary of Vyasa). Logical-semantic variable «matra» indicates it is the fact that the object of consciousness - an integral object, not its partial properties. An object in this and similar contexts it refers to an external object, which is always indicated by the technical term vastu, but not visaya (reflection of the external object in the data of sensory perceptions) .And finally, abhidharmisty define the group consciousness as a result of awareness of every aspect of an object in its entirety. Hence the division of the group on six kinds of consciousness: visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile and mental (manovijnana). In other words, in the psychology of consciousness system abhidharmistskoy group consciousness is the totality of the six kinds of consciousness.
32.2. Here Vyasa brings a standard set of arguments put forward by the representatives of different schools of Indian philosophical realism against the Buddhist concept of instantaneity (ksanikavada). For details, see. [Shastri, 1964] .Lyubopytno that Vacaspati Mishra, clarifying certain provisions, which raises Vyasa in his commentary, identifies the real (or imaginary) opponent like vamasika (letters. "One who adheres to the teachings of Destruction") . See. [TV I. 32, p. 36].
32.3. Vacaspati Mishra notes in this regard: "Since consciousness is one, is aimed at a variety of facilities and stably, [but not instantly, according to the Buddhists], [Vyasa continued]:" [Next]. If...". For just as Chaitra can not be those who remember the content of the treatise (sastra), read Maitreya, as he can not enjoy the fruit (phala) actions, virtuous or sinful accumulated Maitreya, because it has nothing to do with it (the fetus, or investigation], in the same way and that is seen in one content of consciousness (pratyaya - cognition), can not remember the other contents of consciousness Likewise fruit potentsializirovannyh activity traces (karmaSaya), accumulated (upacita) a content of consciousness can not be an object. experience to other contents of consciousness »[TV I. 32, p. 37].
32.4. The Sanskrit text here gomayapayasiyam nydyam, which translates J. Woods like «the maxim of Cowdung as a milky preparation». See .: [Woods, 1914, p. 66]. Ibid - reference to the source, clarifies the meaning of this proverb [p. 66, n. 4].
33.1. In the text of the sutra maitnkarundmuditopeksdndm.Kak in Brahmanical religious and philosophical systems, and the different schools of Buddhism, these four terms describe the appropriate psycho-technical procedures relating to the strict sense of the word to the practice of concentration (samadhi). The most detailed level psycho procedure, termed 'friendliness (maitri), «compassion» (karuna), «[sympathetic] joy» (mudita) and "impartiality» (upeksa), analyzed in Buddhist psychology, which they attributed to the "boundless category "(argatapa). These steps are cultivation methods, or, more precisely, cultivation of emotions, whose main goal - to weaken and then eliminate the boundary line between the adept and others, regardless of whether these people are close and dear to him, indifferent or hostile. For details, see. [Guenther, 1957, p. 161-166] .In abhidharmistskoy tradition of four steps or stages that make up the category of "infinite", also called brahmavihara - letters. "[Types of] the divine behavior."
33.2. The Sanskrit text prasannam, that, according to Vacaspati Misra, should be interpreted as klesavarjitam, t. E. Freed from affectivity.
34.1. In the text of the sutra pracchardanavidhdranabhydm vd prdnasya. The explanation of the first two terms more details, see. [TV I. 35, p. 40].
35.1. The Sanskrit text here yathdbhutdrthapratipddanasdmarthyat - letters. "Due to its ability to explain the true nature of reality" .In connection with the peculiarities of language terminologichnosti Vyasa is worth noting that even J. Woods drew attention to the use of in this context yathabhutam words ( "specifically and exclusively Gotamicheskogo" - C. Rhys Davids.): "The the fact that it occurs here, is further proof of the close relationship between the philosophical system of yoga and Buddhism. " See. [Woods, 1914, p. 73, n. I].
35.2. The Sanskrit text pratyaksikartavya.
36.1. The sutra visokd vd jyotismafi.
36.2. The Sanskrit text dkasakalpam. In this context, use of the word appears, neterminologichno and akasa understood simply as infinite space. (More about Akasa system Sankhya Yoga cm. [Dasgupta, 1930, pp. 217-218].) However, in some cases, the interpretation of the word "Akasha" in the terminological sense (in particular, in the late commentator "Vyasa-Bhasha" Vijnana Bhikshu ) is close enough to budiyskomu. Thus, according to the "Encyclopedia of Abhidharma" yakasha as one of the three cause and unconditional dharma there is a special kind of space, understood as a priori assumption experience. In view of this it is necessary to emphasize that the idea of the Akasha as a special form of space, non-geometric space (dis), dates back to the earliest origins of Indian philosophy and is associated with a sound comprehension of psychophysics. Initially, under the Akasa understood only as the space environment in which sound travels. But since the idea of the sound is inextricably linked with the act of perception, insofar as the "Akasha" was interpreted in Buddhism as a space of psychic experience. That is why the classical abhidharmistskoy philosophy this concept is defined as a space in which there is no material obstacle in Sankhya Yoga 'Akasa »(karanakasa) is regarded as absolutely ubiquitous environment devoid of any kind was the potential difference and serving carrier rajas, or energy component . From its definition as a vibhu (all-pervading).
36.3, the source citation, see. [Woods, 1914, p. 75, n. I].
37.1. According to the commentary Vacaspati Mishra, devoid of desire (vita-ragah) - it Dvaypayana Krishna and others. Their consciousness and becomes the object of a yogi [concentration, and consciousness itself as it yogi] painted (uparaktam - "colored") them »[TV I. 37, p. 42].
38.1. The sutra svapnanidrajnanalambanam vd. 0 the difference between sleep with dreams (svapna) and dreamless sleep (nidra), see. [TV I. 38, p. 42-43].
40.1. The Sanskrit text here nivisamdnasya - letters. "At penetrating."
42.1. The sutra tatra. Vacaspati Mishra explains that "one" means that of the four types of concentration, ie, discursive (savitarka), non-discursive (nirvitarka), reflective (savicara) and non-reflexive (nirvicara)...
42.2. The sutra respectively sabddrthajndna. In his commentary on the sutra Vyasa does not provide definitions of these three terms, limited indication of what is the real process of cognition (grahanam) word (sabda), the object of speech, ie, his assistant (artha), and value (jiiana, t. e. the content of knowledge) are different (vibhakta), and further notes that they exist in different urovnyah.Nado noted that neither Vyasa nor his commentator Vacaspati Mishra does not distinguish between «word» (sabda) and its sound envelope (pada) or sound (dhvani). This distinction is fundamental to drevneindiykoy philosophy of language, and their identification, in which the sounds of the complex was taken because of the word, has always been regarded as a categorical mistake. The transfer value is a function of the word, the sound is only detects it.
42.3. The commentary of Vyasa nirvitarka samdpatti - a state of concentration on the form of "pure object", free from any impurity words and meanings.
43.1. The Sanskrit text anupracayavisesa.
45.1. The sutra alingaparyavasdnam. According to the Sankhya Yoga, Alinga, t. E., "Has no indication" is primordial matter (prakrti) as a starting unspecified state in which there is not yet anything qualitatively defined. See details. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, p. 245-248, 254-255].
45.2. In Sankhya tanmatra system (. The letters "only thing") - immediately preceding the cause "gross", ie with the atomistic structure elements...
45.3. As explained Vacaspati Mishra, "only-sign» (lirigamatra) - this is the first transform product is primal, mahat (great), because it dissolves in pradhana (layam gacchati), which does not dissolve in anything that is devoid of the properties of involution... See. [TV I. 45, p. 51].
46.1. The sutra sabijah samadhi, ie, the "seed" of concentration -.. The real object (vastu), existing outside the mind.
47.1. On the identification of sources, see. [Woods, 1914, p. 93, n. I].
48.1. The sutra is rtambhard prajUd. See. Also [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 344]. Vyasa introduces the term in the text of the comment without definition, limited to the observation that its meaning is clear in itself (anvartha).
48.2. In Calcutta edition of the text - vibhaktir; the publication Bodasa - bibharti.
49.1. The Sanskrit text vijnana.50.1. S. Radhakrishnan writes that, according to psychologists Yoga system, concentration is a common characteristic of all states of consciousness, even in its most intense form, it is found in a state of samadhi (concentration). Any modification of mental (vrtti) leaves behind a samskara, or latent tendency which under suitable conditions can manifest as a state of consciousness. Thus, similar vrtti amplify similar disposition. The yogi should not only stop the process modifications of the deployment, but also destroy the disposition, or they may be 're-emerge. See. [Radhakrishnan, 1931, vol. II, p. 348].
51.1. The Sanskrit text here nirodhasthitikalakramanubhavena.
51.2. S. Dasgupta summarizes the final part of the comment: "... when entering consciousness in nirodha, or in a state of non-cognitive (asamprajnata) absolute meaningless stop marked" fluctuations "between consciousness and asamprajnata nirodha state sainprajnata type of individuation (asmita), until finally the potency nirodha It does not destroy samprajnata potency (sarnskara) and consciousness begins to light up its own light. ... Then the true nature of the self (self) finally returns to the prakrti. Here, the return process, once started in a state of samadhi and come in their development to the buddhi, comes to its final equilibrium as a prakrti thanks to the gradual disintegration of the deployment of energy, and thus the return trend prakrti finally realized. " See. [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 345-346].
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