"Yoga Sutras" Of Patanjali
Comments Vadim Zaporozhtseva
the text "Yoga Sutras" of Patanjali.
On means of implementation [of yoga].
Author: Vadim Zaporozhtsev
Date and place of lecture:
Cultural center "Enlightenment" in Moscow.
On means of implementation [of yoga].
14. Due to the condition of virtue or Vice they have [result in pleasure [or] pain.
Review of Vyasa: They [that is] birth, life expectancy, and [relevant] experience - have [his] the result of pleasure [when] due to the righteous, [that is, good karma];[if] due to the blemish, [that] the result, they are suffering.Suffering is something that is inherently unacceptable 1 [for ordinary humans], for the yogi, however, even in the moment of enjoying the sensual object exists only suffering, [that is] what is unacceptable in its essence.- How can this be explained?
Student: And then the next aphorism.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Go to the next one.
15. Truly, for the wise all is suffering - because of exposure to continuous changes, anxiety, traces of [past] experiences, but also because of the controversial deployment modes.
Review of Vyasa: the enjoyment of each [individual] is associated with addiction and is based on animate and inanimate resources...
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Come on, I previous, the 14th aphorism, fast right now consider because of it we are actually already said everything.
This is a continuation of what we discussed earlier, but in the next aphorism, 15th, interestingly enough, it is stated that yoga did a test of enjoyment is suffering.
Here we have very clearly understood the meaning of the verse, because it is easy to be confused and to imagine that yogi is such a pessimist that even when enjoying, still says, "not this, Not that." This, of course, not!
Student: What is that supposed to mean?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Pleasure is of two kinds, two kinds, two kinds: intrinsic enjoyment and due to the transient pleasure.
Student: They are different, perhaps?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Even if we do not consider the force. They are different in nature.
Here is the pleasure that lasts and then have to disappear. For example: I bought a new car, I'm happy. Then joy slowly fades away. The machine is the same, and I have the joy of the former on this occasion do not.
Or another situation: I bought some item and very happy for him, but suddenly it turns out that there are better, and I already want it. And purchased first is sort of like not looking. And so on and so forth.
Based on the fact that this joy arose in some conditions, it can be concluded that it will disappear after some time when the conditions of novelty or rarity of the conditions - any conditions - will change. The fact that up to a certain point, bring happiness, starting with some moment may be perceived neutrally, and worst of all to be perceived as continuous suffering. The same situation or thing!
We can long dream to buy yourself, say, "Moskvich" and well did buy it, and then rejoice. And then, after some time, when all will go on "Mercedes", we will perceive what we go on "Muscovite" as a punishment: "Again?! Are you kidding me?!" Like, you know, the characters in the movies he asks: "what For to me such a fate?" My dear, a hundred years ago there were no machines, all on donkeys! There is always something to compare!
Student: Yeah, everything is relative...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: these things are relative! In this sense, and we need to understand the fact that when a yogi experiences of pleasure, by and large, perceive them as suffering.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, because he is a smart man. He's done it repeatedly. He understands that it is impossible to that pleasure, well, as if to be...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Not that attached... it is Impossible that your mind is darkened because of this.
This does not mean that the yogi does not enjoy. But he realizes that this is not wholly ideal.
Student: the Question immediately arises. If he does not see it as absolute enjoyment, he generally then, it appears, does not enjoy "one hundred percent"? It is true that a pessimist, who grumbles: "It is not to me it isn't, it does not want"? Turns out, he, in General, is bad all around is, by definition, whatever you get him talking?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: No! Of course not against yoga. Yogi - not grumpy.
Student: That is, it can enjoy all around, but he seems to be not attached to it and does not cling?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. Even, I believe, it should be understood a little differently.
Behind all this lies an ideal, enduring, independent of combinations of conditions, elements and circumstances. And only when we receive this imperishable pleasure, we, by and large, really enjoy. It is not a surrogate-substitute, but the original, which will not disappear.
But all other pleasures are transient: they are here today and vanished tomorrow. Some time they give pleasure, and since some time anymore.
From this standpoint it is necessary to understand this aphorism, not those that are really poor yogi do not experience pleasure. No! Experiencing.
Come on! So, the 15th aphorism and commentary of Vyasa...
15. Truly, for the wise all is suffering - because of exposure to continuous changes, anxiety, traces of [past] experiences, but also because of the controversial deployment modes.
Review of Vyasa: the enjoyment of each [individual] is associated with addiction and is based on animate and inanimate means. In this case [always] exists [hidden potency], or a predisposition to action, caused by attraction.
Similarly, [the individual] experiences the hostility to the media, causing suffering, or confused 1. In other words, there is also a predisposition to action, generated hostility, or stupidity, [that is, highly jaconello in ignorance].
In this regard it was said: "Pleasure is not possible without causing harm to living beings". Consequently, there is also the physical predisposition to action created by the violence, causing harm. [It] therefore, the enjoyment of sensual objects has been called ignorance.
Meeting the needs of the senses in the objects of pleasure is happiness. Frustration of desire is suffering. [It follows that] cannot be achieved dispassion the senses repetitive practice of pleasure.
- Because of the repeated practice of pleasure intensify libido, as well as the sophistication of the senses [in enjoyment]. That is why the practice of pleasure cannot be a means [of gaining eternal] happiness. Truly, whoever, seeking happiness, attached to sensual objects and falls into the great quagmire of suffering, such [a person] who, fearing a Scorpion sting, is stung by the snake.
This property suffering related to [continuous] change is called dissatisfaction, [it] causes pain only to the yogi, even being in a state of happiness.
- Further, what suffering associated with anxiety?
- The feeling of anxiety in all [living beings] is associated with hostility and is based on animate and inanimate resources for its implementation. In this case, too, there is a predisposition to action, and generated hostility. [The individual] seeking to acquire the means of pleasure, experiencing the thrill of the body, speech and mind. Because [while] he's doing good or [causes] harm to another, due to bring other [beings] benefit or harm, he accumulates good or bad [karma]. This predisposition to action is occurring because of greed or potrachennoe. This is called the suffering caused by anxiety.
- What is the suffering that is caused by [the traces of the past] experiences, [that is forming factors]?
- Because of [past] experience of pleasure [arises] a predisposition to experiences of pleasure, but because of [past] experience the suffering of a predisposition to experiences of suffering. And thus, when the fruit of the [past] action Matures - in the form of pleasure or pain - again and again is the accumulation of a predisposition to action. So this not having the stream start suffering, spreading wider and wider, because of their unacceptable entity oppresses even yogi.
- Wise is similar to the eyeball. If it strikes [is] in the eye, and not to another part of the body, the smallest strand of wool causes pain by his touch, and these [past impressions] suffering hurt only yogi that [sensibility] such eyeball, but not to other subjects of experience. Others, who from time to time discards the suffering caused by our own actions, which [however] occurs again and again, who takes on the suffering that happens from time to time discarded, who as if fully flooded with stream of consciousness, colored by traces of past experiences, without beginning, who is due to nescience falls under the power of false ideas] of "I" and "mine", which should get rid of - [those] who are born again and again, are subjected to the threefold anguish, [due to] causes of external internal or both together. And so, seeing himself and all variety of living beings involved in this way in the beginningless flow of suffering, the yogi finds refuge in the true knowledge is the cause of the cessation of all suffering.
[The sūtra says]: "Indeed, for wise all is suffering... because of inconsistent deployment modes". [This means that] properties of the mind that has the nature of clarity, activity and rest, being interrelated because of the "support" provided to each other, form a peaceful, violent or dull state of consciousness, corresponding to these three qualities. Since the deployment modes, [that is, the fundamental qualities], is very volatile in so far consciousness and are called "rapidly changing" 2.
The highest form and highest [degree] of operation |modes| opposite, but the ordinary [form] coexist with the higher.
So, these modes, as they rely on each other, are [named] States of consciousness - joyful, suffering, stupid, and each [of the gunas] takes the form of any [of them]. The difference between them is determined, however, a predominance of one of the VCO 3. Therefore, "to the wise all is suffering," and (generating] the seed of this great diversity of suffering is ignorance. And the reason for the elimination of ignorance - true knowledge.
Just as the science of treatment of diseases has four sections: disease, cause of disease, healing and medicine, this Shastra consists of four sections, namely: the cycle of life, the cause of the cycle of life, liberation and means of liberation 4. Of these, the cycle of existence as the diversity of suffering there is something that you should get rid of. For a reason that should get rid of, connection of pradhāna and puruṣa 5. Deliverance - the absolute cessation of [the] connection. Means of deliverance — true knowledge.
At this, form someone who gets rid of 6 can be neither found nor left, [because] in the case of abandonment is accepted the doctrine of their destruction, and in the case of acquiring the [private form] - the doctrine of [the generators] reason 7. The denial of both [exercises] remains the doctrine of the eternity [of the Purusha|. This is the true knowledge.
Thus, this sastra is defined [as consisting] of four sections.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: once again the aphorism read.
Truly, for the wise all is suffering - because of exposure to continuous changes, anxiety, traces of [past] experiences, but also because of the controversial deployment modes.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: first, once again, that we are studying the "Yoga Sutras" of Patanjali with commentary of Vyasa.
Commentary the Vyasa – perhaps, one of the most respected. However, here, the naked eye can see the influence of Buddhism and other religions - Jains. Heard of it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: About nonviolence. You probably may have heard of this religion. Absolutely curious religion, where virtue is considered to end up refusing food. So nothing died. And so slowly and sadly had to die.
They go with the twigs so that, God forbid, not to crush a beetle or something. Very curious for, but we're not going to do it. And in this sense I don't want to strictly bind to the commentary of Vyasa.
So, the suffering. As stated in the aphorism, it is largely due to this unpredictable succession of the gunas, i.e., qualities of the phenomenon or object. But here I want to explain it from the point of view that is close to our school, or even closer to the tantric view...
There is a pleasure. And what is suffering? We remember that in the logical schools is given as an axiom that all suffering, rather, all the pleasure that we have is not the essence of something external, it is not the essence of the manifestation of some external elements in their combination. And that is what we are.
Pleasure is a property of our "I". The mechanism of its appearance is quite subtle - through the causal body. Not going to consider it now, but remember: all pleasure in this world that a man can obtain is not what flows into a person from outside as the container is not some substance outside which, if you pour inside a person, he feels pleasure and then cease to experience the passage of time. Such a view is misleading.
All the pleasure that we experience is not external pleasure and internal delight. All the external things – as a kind of keys that open the internal lock internal pleasure. While the key works, we experience pleasure, and when the key is not working, we cease to experience pleasure.
Pleasure does not have a glass of vodka or some tasty food. Moreover, if we consider the tantric aspects, by and large, sexual pleasure does not have the woman you so passionately desired. The most interesting that all of this enjoyment lies in you. And all the symptoms – it's only the keys that help inner pleasure to show.
But like all keys associated with the external, ephemeral. These keys are long. Rather, it's not even a set of keys, and coarse picks. Once you pick the lock opened, and the second time it jammed, and he was in no hurry to open, we need all the big "dose".
A person commits such a substitution: the concept of "pleasure" it confuses the concept of "keys to pleasure", that is, those factors that allow the enjoyment inside to open. This state of ignorance.
And then it's logically enough just coming out. We begin to cling to any external object, which causes our pleasure, but he is not. Instead of going to the source of pleasure that is within us, as we go outside, we move on from that enjoyment, which is. That is why we need larger and larger doses, for example, the same vodka to experience the same pleasure.
Student: Why? I will explain more.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, because with this every appointment we have by and large removed from our inner enjoyment.
Student: Why are we removed?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because we more and more begin to believe that the reason for this happiness - in this glass of vodka. That is, we mentally myself even more mislead. Our thoughts are even more removed from the source of true pleasure.
Student: identify And vodka with pleasure?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes! And forget about the source!
And then comes this moment: impossible to our sensual enjoyment of food. The more we feed them, the more they will want.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because every time we move away from the source further and further, and we will require a larger and larger dose to at least sustain the previous level of enjoyment.
The analogy is. When you're close to the sun you have solar battery, this solar battery can be very small in size, because the intensity of the rays is so strong on one square centimeter, which produces a lot of energy. But if you (foolishly) start to move away from the sun to get the same energy you need to increase the area of the solar panels. And the farther you're removed, so you have to have larger solar panels.
That's the reason that we passionately aspire to a particular ideal. First, we again want to repeat it, and this is natural.
Student: why is natural to get pleasure?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, because it is our essence. If it were unnatural, we would have to it is not sought.
Unfortunately, there are many philosophical schools, this is all wrong understand and interpret. They interpret pleasure as a thing, which we need to get rid of. It is nonsense! If it wasn't for our natural property, we would be to this never tried. And since it's something completely natural, we strive for this.
Our only problem is that we are confusing the issue. We substitute the notion of the enjoyment with the subject or with that key, which allows you to stand out this pleasure.
So, each time requires a larger and larger dose. An example that I constantly repeat: today, I'd settle for ten dollars, I need a hundred tomorrow, the next day - a thousand a year less than a million I won't speak to anyone. Then I say to myself: "Until I become a billionaire, I will not happy". The appetite grows while eating - there is a saying.
Student: Why is this happening?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because we are by and large going in the wrong direction. Here, from this point of view is absolutely correct in saying that it is useless to seek pleasure. It is clear, right?
The more you will get, the more you will want, and you'd never eat completely the way you feel. You are removed from the source.
But again, we need constantly to remember that it's not in enjoyment. Ideal nothing to do with it. This is the problem ignorance: we substitute one concept to another concept.
Unfortunately, such a logical and simple idea so hard to reach some practitioners that I am sometimes horrified when I say: "From the pleasures to be got rid of!" I always urge: "Let's not confuse concepts. Let's get rid of false delights."
Student: what austerity? What you need to keep yourself in check? Yes, because what is asceticism? And what is this check?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: So we're not going on about this about a "Ghost", which we all deletes and removes from the source. We say to ourselves: "Everything! I'm not going to move away from the source." For example: today I drank a glass of vodka, tomorrow two, the day after tomorrow three. It is clear that this trend in the "nowhere" trend in the removal. And I say to myself: "All: enough of vodka!"
Externally it looks like austerity. Everyone says, "Oh, Mr. Smith took up asceticism, stopped drinking vodka, controlled so exhausting". No! Ivan Ivanovich himself does not exhausting. And vodka he stopped drinking, not because of indulging in desire, but because he realized it was the wrong way. Realized that it needs to achieve the same pleasures this road to nowhere, and the proper way inside. And it is manifested as asceticism and say that he was engaged in asceticism. Nothing of the sort. Ivan Ivanovich just about the way the compartment, and he began to seek the true path.
The apprentice: How to explain this to an outsider?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: an outsider can't understand it if he does. And so the outsider begins to copy the behavior of Ivan Ivanovich, who, sooner or later really abandoning of vodka and finding the source of happiness within yourself that truly glows with happiness and bliss.
All around him jump: Ivan Ivanovich became a teacher, guru of life. Well, because it is the yogi, the naked eye can see: a man enjoys every second of life. But their thoughtlessness, people begin to remember, and how Ivan Ivanovich led? And, he didn't drink vodka, he had not done, he strongly refused it. And they start to copy, not knowing what it was doing Ivan.
Here's this thing again, very difficult to understand... And, oddly enough, in many treatises it is implied. During the writing of treatises of Patanjali it was implied. Therefore, he did not focus. Now it's not implied. And not written about it. The result is just a stupid misunderstanding.
I repeat: the pursuit of pleasure is a property perfectly natural. The only question is how to do it and what ideal to strive for.
If we are confusing the issue, it is useless to seek pleasure, we will never get. In this sense, Yes, everything is transitory.
Experiencing a transient pleasure, the yogin, by and large, understands that this is not ideal. This is a mere glimpse of what lies ahead. Yes, if he drinks a glass of vodka and anything he feels, he feels pleasure, of course, some time is metabolism, but in doing so he never forgets this simple truth that vodka here at anything. What is in this moment as a result of the chemistry of the light of his "I", the light here is that true pleasure, which is inalienable from the "I" property, begins to Shine a little more. He experiences this pleasure, but shared: it is not pleasure, brought vodka, and the pleasure derived from the inside. If he filters it with impunity passes through the sensory world. Based on this Tantra.
Student: But what about the pollution of channels, for example?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: I am not going to consider technological details. Of course, any introduction of chemicals contaminate. But sometimes the yogi has the opportunity to clean the channels exercises. It turns out the work was in vain: on the one hand, he pollutes, the other then cleans. Irrational, I agree. Yes, fingerprints stay, and it is an irrational approach. But I want slightly different time to stop.
The main thing - that this was not the very first stupidity, when all of a sudden begin to say, "All: you have to give up happiness in this life, you have to be..." - and do not say what. Like all yoga implies that we should get rid of the suffering (indeed, why is it then necessary?), but on the other hand, nothing about happiness also did not speak. It turns out this stereotype that yoga is a "thug", which seems to be not suffering, but happy to call it impossible, you know? And the funny thing is that a large number of people are beginning to mow. They start off strongly breaking Comedy, to imagine that they are not subject to earthly suffering, and has, so to speak, the angels with wings. On the other hand, something not really seen, so they were beaming so, you know, causeless happiness. Because this is the moment we're talking about, nedoponimanija. Only in this context you can understand why here it is said that any sensual pleasure is transitory and not worth it, headlong, to chase him. Otherwise it's just confusion that leads nowhere.
By the way, at the time, failed Buddhists. Sooner or later the common people ceased to understand the intricacies of their logic. Buddhism is built on reason. It is a strong religion, a strong system for people with a very good, developed intellectual abilities. But, whether we like it or not, not all people on the Earth with an equally developed intellectual abilities. And it's not that there are people better and some people worse. Someone just did not want of intellectual ability to develop, or rather develops them in some other plane.
And so sooner or later people no longer understand at all what these Buddhists want. And Buddhism disappeared. In India Buddhism disappeared. In India there is no Buddhism, well, in any case, it was not. For the simple reason that sooner or later they would be divorced from understanding and hung in the air.
I really do not want such a fate befell yoga. Although... maybe it already happened, as with the Buddhists?..
16. Not yet come to suffering [is that] must be eliminated.
Review of Vyasa: the suffering of the Past, already gone monuments [life] experience, not relates to what needs to be fixed, but now [suffering] in the moment is the content of the experience 1 and can not be eliminated in the next moment (of existence].Hence, only the suffering that is yet to come, [that is, future suffering] causes anguish to the yogin, [sensitive] as the eyeball, but not the other subject of experiment 2. It; [this is the future of suffering], and belongs to the region that should be eliminated.Therefore, further specifies the reason that is called "tribute to be eliminated". Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: We have already discussed. It is useless to worry about what has already passed. In a sense it is useless to have to influence what goes on. Well, in the sense that it is already unfolding. Here we are, sitting in this room. Of course we could at this point to sit in the Grand Kremlin Palace of Congresses. Or in the Kremlin. But for this we would have had in the past to make other efforts to present a different result. Similarly, in this regard. In order to in the future to sit in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses or in the Kremlin, we now have to make the effort. For the moment, which has not yet come. For the karma which has not yet unfolded.
Disciple: Then is there a point very rational?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Extremely rational! You know, that's all these, what is called, a sentimental rehashing the past and the present far enough from yoga, because it is useless already: the train has left! After a fight with his fists do not wave. Wise concludes in the future goes the other way. Everything else... you Know, sometimes there are people who like to complain, to say that they were so bad in the past, that they never will. Here, cry on - cry on, and anything real and do not. As it was, such and remained. The yogi in this respect goes the other way. He cares about the future. Here was another reference, which has become axiomatic that the body of yoga, the yogi becomes sensitive as an eyeball. This is a very deep truth.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: once a person begins to practice yoga, he becomes thin. And all those rough conditions of life in which lives the average person and considers them normal, for yoga becomes unbearable painful. Just as was said here, when the eye gets a tiny hair or speck of dust, - how hard it is. On the other hand, if the same speck of dust or strand of wool touches our body, we could not care less. This is a very strict regularity in yoga. I don't believe that if people began to practice yoga seriously began to practice yoga in a past life he was probably a very advanced yogi and have only just started, I do not believe that it does not pass through the stage of ultimate exacerbation of the senses. I just don't believe it.
17. Connecting the seer and the visible is the reason that should be eliminated 1.
Review of Vyasa: 2 the Seer is Purusha, possessing reflective knowledge buddhi (intellect) 3. See all the properties that are nurtured in illuminating the essence of buddhi 4. And so it is visible, acting like a magnet, thanks to the [one] only to its proximity, it becomes in virtue of the properties to be visible identity of the Purusha, the Lord, the essence of which - a vision.
It [is visible], finds the property to be the object of experience because it is [as it were] endowed with the inner essence of the other. Although by its nature it is independent, it is only samosavank), it acts as a dependent on another because it serves his purpose.
Without beginning in time and due to the [above-mentioned] goal setting the connection between these two - the ability to see and ability to be an instrument of vision is the reason that should be eliminated, that is the cause of suffering — this is the meaning [here is the author explanation] 5
As it says in this regard "unconditional freedom from suffering is only possible as a result of elimination of the reasons for this connection".
— Due to knowledge of the antidote, which you can use to get rid of the causes of suffering. So, the property can be pricked [belongs to] stop, the ability to prick — a thorn, getting rid of the injection in order not to step foot on a thorn or step on her foot, protected by shoes. Who in everyday life knows that a triple bond, that provides a defense and does not suffer from the injections.
— Due to the ability to understand the three sides [of the situation]. Also in this case: namely, sattva is experiencing the pain of suffering caused by rajas.
— Why [this happens]?
Because it acts [passive] the object against the action, causing suffering. The infliction of suffering is, the effect on sattva as the object of the action; [it] does not apply to not subject to change, inactive "knower of the field" 6, due to the fact that the objects "appear" to him 7. But when sattva is in pain, the Purusha in relation to its form of existence, also appears [as it] reflected experiencing this pain.
[More] States own form visible:
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: once again the aphorism!
Student: "Connecting the seer and the visible is the reason that should be eliminated".
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is a wonderful aphorism! Oddly enough, he is just in all yogas, including Tantra yoga. This is a basic principle. Again, remember the axiom. We have our "I". Our "I" has two abilities: consciousness and energy. Our consciousness is like the light. It highlights all that is in mind, in this rather subtle mind, called buddhi. Whatever was happening in the buddhi, is highlighted by the light of consciousness.
But there is a curious situation: when our "I" through his consciousness underscores all of what is in the buddhi, it (as itself with them not identifying itself does not see itself) begins to believe that it is buddhi. More precisely, not buddhi, and all the objects and shapes that appear in buddhi, rush in the form of images, thoughts. Let me explain.
I see the chair in front of him. The chair fixed my gross organs, my eyes, and then passed through my mind, called Manas, in another, more subtle reason, which is called buddhi. And in my buddhi occurs an exact copy of that chair. I see him with physical eyes, but the image I have in the buddhi. And here is the exact copy of a chair in my buddhi is highlighted by the light of my consciousness, and I'm starting to understand it, to know what it is.
If I say, close my eyes and think about myself, I have born some image of myself. And he similarly reproduced in the buddhi. For example, I consider myself a person with two arms, two legs, one head, endowed with some qualities. And I have an exact copy is reproduced in the buddhi. Buddhi is made of the finest matter in the state of sattva is the state of clarity and purity. It's like the purest crystal, are not affected nor rajas (activity), or Tamas (inertia). And in my mind, called buddhi, there is an exact copy of me. Or rather, my ideas about myself. Here begins the ego. I, on the one hand, the rays of consciousness illuminate his buddhi, on the other hand, outline in this buddhi what I mean, there's myself, some of his quality (to me so many years, I have such a gender, male or female, I belong to a sort of race, a certain nationality, I have such and such experience was, I have so many degrees or I do not know how to read, and so on, and the like).
So in my buddhi is born of self-image. The rays of consciousness permeate this image, and this image constantly in my is, he keeps me present. You know?
Student: who builds this way? Buddhi? After all, not his consciousness does, and buddhi?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, the buddhi gives information about the whole system. How would samovosproizvoditsya part of the system, the part of this body. And the mind clings to this part as if it it was. It shines through the buddhi, and buddhi... Imagine this analogy. Ocean of water and in it there are certain shapes that seem to "freeze." Here come some impressions about who I am. I imagine my senses give information about what my body is this, that, fifth, tenth, and an exact copy of him out of the water buddhi – again! and as if "frozen" crystallized. And the ocean buddhi Shine the rays of consciousness. And they see: "Ah! Here it is – the beholder!"
The rays of consciousness merge with that image arises buddhi, and self-identity. That is, the rays of consciousness, which I see no source from where they go - I, clinging to the first available, what they saw. In particular, for the way someone looks. Then I see the chair. And this image there is another image of the chair. My mind repeats this pattern external. The chair also highlighted by the rays of consciousness and this situation occurs, what is looking, is what he's looking at and there is a process of looking. This threefold process.
Then external objects in the form of a chair appear and disappear. I looked at the machine again! – had the car. I'm starting to explore. But in the background there is the image itself. And here is the image itself, which is impregnated with the rays of consciousness - this is egoism. We ignorantly view of himself, which appeared in the buddhi, correlated with our Purusha, our "I".
Student: It is always there, even when you're distracted by yourself?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Absolutely! Yes! Even when you dream and something I think still you have some idea about yourself can be vague or more specific. However, there is an exception. This is a tantric meditation or yoga practice. Later I will tell about it.
But, as a rule, even when we sleep - pay attention, even when we're dreaming, we always perceive ourselves as audience in one form or another. That is, we correlated all visible to himself, we mean that we have hands, feet, some organs. Though we may be, in their sleep can't see - we see a picture that unfolds before us. But at the same time, we mind's eye see yourself. Not in the correct form, and himself in the form of the body. It may be subtle but the body. And we correlated this body even in sleep.
That is, this ignorance does not disappear even in sleep. Even in sleep, when we see a dream, still some part of our consciousness is in ignorance, and we think of yourself as the body.
Student: That is the first thing that come across the rays of the consciousness, this idea of...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: About himself!
Student: And then all the others?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: And then all the other objects. It can be deduced. You can, for example, be born blind or close your eyes, nothing to see, nothing to hear, nothing to understand, nothing to know. But you will still have a certain image about himself. And this is the way not absolute, that is, not the way you puruṣa - what you are, and some other image which came from some inner sensations of the body.
Another example: even when you open your eyes and really can not understand that it for items you already realize yourself able to see or able to hear. You still can't even distinguish the sound, but you're able to hear it. You still can't discern objects, but you have opened this ability! You have the buddhi there is a representation of yourself as the beholder, the perceiver, and so on, that is, as the body. Well, maybe about the very subtle body - body, feelings, or body of some kind of emotion, or mind – not necessarily about rough.. But still in the buddhi occurs, a copy of ourselves, how we imagine it. It is illuminated by the rays of the consciousness and identified "I" here with this view.
As soon as there is this identification between self-concept and our Atman, our Purusha, our "I", here is the connection. If this idea begins to suffer, that is, with him there are some moments that somehow destroy, infringe or otherwise affect it, it is only the law of Association our "I" also begins to realize itself suffering. Although it is to this image has nothing! Here in this paradox.
Student: Why is it suffering?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, because it is... Nothing can force to suffer our "I" because he can't act. Nothing, but himself itself, you know? Here is quite a paradoxical relationship! That is because of the law of associations "I" becomes self-punishing. When it sees that the image with which it identifies itself, is undergoing some unpleasant changes, it begins to expose itself to "self-flagellation". Student: he thinks himself this picture?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: It considers itself to that image and in response starts to cause itself suffering. Nothing external to our "I" to cause suffering cannot. In principle! See, what's the clue cunning?
If this is our "I" becomes identified with some other object, and that object begins to suffer, the very "I" becomes self-punishing.
Student: How is it starting to depress?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: this is a Very simple way... We recall that a property of our "I" is absolute happiness, is an experience of pleasure in the highest degree. In and of itself. Here we have our "I," and here his natural ability to experience fantastic enjoyment. But because of this identification, because of this self-punishment our "I" begins to diminish their own enjoyment. It begins as if trying to crush inherent in it, inseparable from "I" associated. Then there is pain!
That is a pain is when we try to suppress inherent a quality of the Supreme enjoyment. Pleasure – it is itself. You know, there's the concept of "light", but there is no concept of "darkness", because darkness is just the absence of light. Similarly, pain, and suffering. Suffering alone, no! But there is a tendency to reduce pleasure that is perceived by us as pain. Here's what happens...
So, our Purusha created in our buddhi idea of itself and savetodatabase. And if something affects the physical body, then, of course, it is through the senses comes and is reflected in the idea of Purusha. That is, there is, on a gross level, enough to affect the body, in the buddhi, the copy also becomes, well, if not flawed, it is with some blemish. And since "I" our was identified with this copy, if it is a change in the direction of the negative begins to lead to the fact that "I" starts to cut itself, "choke", trying to crush itself. Here begins the suffering. There is always subject and object. Is the subject of perception is our exact copy of our "I" into the buddhi is the object of perception is actually a copy of the object, but also in the buddhi. And everything happens in buddhi, all occurs in the mind: the subject and object of our perception. That's why, for example, the Buddhists so much rests on the mind? They do not feed bread - let me think about the mind! Because even at this level is very much due. Go ahead!
So, there is seeing, there is visible.
Student: is the process?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. There is process, there is a division. But by and large, neither one nor the other is not. And there is a certain pattern that is illuminated by the rays of consciousness. And all these separation of the seer and the visible occur within buddhi. I'm not even telling it like it is, so to speak, outside of our body! Because in the end, some of the original factors influenced buddhi to buddhi something formed. But I don't say anything, because we by and large know nothing about it. We can only know the imprint, the exact copy that is made in the buddhi. We know the external world only by an exact copy of the image, which emerges before us in the buddhi. What the outside world really is? And God knows. And read again the aphorism.
Student: "Connecting the seer and the visible is the reason that should be eliminated".
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: so we start to divide, that is, as if to pull the rays of consciousness in the first place, this exact copy of our idea of yourself. Not even about the external object that arises in the buddhi, but first and foremost, this idea of himself. And when the rays of our "I" as if pulled from buddhi then divided the real seer (Purusha, our "I") and here is the exact copy of the visible representation, a kind of fantasy about who sees (that is an exact copy of our idea of ourselves in the buddhi). When they are disconnected, it vanishes, this relation is the identity. From this point, the yogin ceases to experience any discomfort caused by the body.
Student: the object and subject for him still?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: So, on we go! As soon as it happened as soon as he looks at all objects not through buddhi, and directly, the yogin sees including buddhi as the setting where it occurs. He sees that there is some substance, easily transformable. And, so easily that it seems that even this substance is not, and there's these pictures. A bunch of pictures! That is, sometimes it seems that this liquid water ocean, and all have froze at some ideas and some forms. But as soon as the rays of consciousness came out of the ocean, all these pictures again! – thawed, drained. And all you see is just the ocean! You see this subtle substance – buddhi itself. And you cease to see the world. You cease to see its manifestations, because it is just a copy. You see the tool with which you used to perceive the world. It is buddhi. And you rabotodatelia, all gone.
Student: the outside world, the objective then what happened?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: He will not go away, he both was, and remained. But, you know, it's a little emphasis on friend. Here is a look not from the outside but from the inside. So what's the difference, he stayed or left, if you split up?! Well, how do you explain...
Look, you have a TV. And you can't see anything except the TV. You look at him, the look, and you think you see the world. And then you pressed the button, and the screen went dark. Whether real world or is he gone? You, in General, can't even identify in any way. But for the purpose of your knowledge of this is very much because it suppressed a lot of things. But there is still another explanation... Then it will be more seriously described. I'm just a picture painted.
Student: so... Now I'll think a little bit... So here it is: here the seer is "I", and visible only buddhi. That is not the outside world?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: You don't know what the outside is! You can't see it. Your senses perceive any signals. Transformirovalsya signals into nerve impulses, nerve impulses are transmitted in the subtle mind, the buddhi through Manas. You see only the picture which arises in the buddhi. You know, there are people who have work perfectly all organs: eyes see, ears hear. But the brain is some kind of failure. And they see nothing and hear nothing. Is there a real world? They can't say anything about it. Because to them, nothing comes up, although the eyes see, perceive. Exactly the same here. View of the outside world, we have only the copies, which is formed in the buddhi. What is really the real world, we don't know.
Student: Cleanse the buddhi from these experiences and see?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is not enough. Moreover, to purify the buddhi of the impressions. But if you want to do with the outside world, which comes through the senses, you must: a) clear the senses, b) to purify the Manas (Manas because – as a filter station: miss it, I won't miss), and the last in) is directly buddhi clear from these images. Then any impression through the senses through Manas will to manifest in the buddhi in its pristine nature. But if it will manifest itself in its pristine nature, you can get all the information. You look at the table, and you have the buddhi, if this signal is passed through a purified vision and Manas is not only the image of this object, but all that it can be connected. All-all-all information. You clearly tell what it was, what it is and where he go. That is this kind of superpower...
Student: in order to split into "I" and the buddhi, just enough to purify the buddhi of the impressions, that is, to make it smooth, this substance from sattva? And all? And then the rays of consciousness will be reflected and glow?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. You are absolutely right. We need to get rid of these ideas from these here objects. But the biggest is to get rid of view of himself. Remember, as yoga usually describe the sensation in meditation... Here I sat, thinking about the goddess Kali. I thought-thought, concentrated. First, gone are all the external things, I ceased to notice them. I ceased to hear, see and so forth, I was completely focused on this idea. Then it had become manifest, so the image of the divine Kali began to manifest, it is feel like to disappear myself, if I dissolve. It's scary. As a rule, it's a horrible feeling, because the impression that you are this ocean of torn to pieces. And from the point of view of this process is the following: rays of consciousness emerge, are taken from the view of himself and there is such a picture that I was aware of some higher reality - the goddess Kali, but as if I physically disappeared, as if I physically disappeared. You know? Here was this image of the goddess Kali, but there was nothing, including we had no idea even about himself. That is selfishness, the image of himself disappeared. This is the highest Samadhi! The highest Samadhi.
But there is the next step. If you have such a Samadhi was reached, time starts to work for you, and sooner or later you reach the so-called Nirvikalpa-Samadhi, or Samadhi without an object, bezobrazna. That is, even the image of Kali, in which you were absorbed, and he disappears.
Student: What is happening here from the point of view of yoga of Patanjali?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: If the rays of consciousness separated from its representation in the buddhi, and displayed only what was left in buddhi and buddhi in this moment was the image of the goddess Kali, then went even further: when the rays again! – and to themselves began to Shine. They no longer even on buddhi to watch this grandiose vision of the goddess Kali, and began to illuminate itself. And this Samadhi, from which even hard, as they say, to leave, to return to this world because you suddenly realize that you do with the world not bind. Then comes the final absolute release. Completely you're out of the world. As an example, here the following incident from the life of Ramakrishna. It is fairly easy to achieve... Well, as easy enough, so he also spent a lot of time, and it is contemplated that the image of the goddess Kali. It is very easy. And then came his teacher, Totapuri, who said, "You must attain the Samadhi of no image at all." But Ramakrishna could not get around it as long as Totapuri took a piece of glass and shoved in the nose and said, "Like this you need to cut all of the ideas about the dual world, of any images." And then, after that, is really gone and the subject and the object, and the process of cognition. That is, if the highlighted object is the goddess Kali, then disappear all. Everything disappeared, there is neither subject nor object. But, you see, when you say "Disappeared", people think: "Well, everything! Everything faded, faded, out!". Yes?
Nothing of the sort! It's just so giant next level, at our small level we described as "faded, faded, disappeared." And the view of yoga, only with this the moment it starts, you know? Why is this aphorism has a very important relation to tantric practice? There are such practices as visualization and samosatene your body. If you're in the buddhi will make their way in the form of a God and tie the rays of his consciousness to it, then you're actually and they will. You would dissolve his previous view of himself will create a new body of the deity in the subtle matter of buddhi, and if you smoothiethis with him, that is, switch the rays of consciousness for him, you and they will. All individuals start with frightening speed to adapt to the image that you create in the buddhi. It is the underlying principle of visualization in tantric practices. But more on that later.
Student: Any visualization is based on this or some only?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: I do not want to touch upon this topic. This requires a special explanation. But the General principle is this: if you create in your buddhi, the sense of self...
Student: So you gonna count it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: first, Yes, you will think you are. From the absolute point of view, it is also misleading. From the point of view of our Purusha, our own self, the body, your body is like the body of deity, it is also misleading. But there two million steps above. From the absolute point of view, while "I" is absorbed by itself, any body and any notion of the self is delusion. But from the point of view of the practice of Tantra in which accelerates this process, is the next a quick jump to the next stage from which to make the final push is much, much easier. This is the meaning of many practices.
Understand Tantra it is more practical. You say: "Do it!" Nobody explains why. It is assumed that you have already caught every word on the fly and embody it. No you are not in any theory, as in many schools, not committed. If you are not smart enough instinctively to feel that it is true, and do what you say, then, in principle it is considered that you have not grown up to Tantra. Then try other methods. So, there is nothing to explain. Sometimes there is such impression that here I was told to do this or that exercise, and my mind, too clever, disobedient and asks: "why am I here with nothing to do?" But actually with the mind it is very easy to deal, because this practice is so thin, so serious a theory that in fact any reason will be satisfied, if he is inclined to the analytic justification of a particular practice. But when it is done at the moment of practice there is, of course, no one persuaded me: now I'm going to do this. Nothing! There is it's all natural.
18. Visible, has the nature of clarity, activity and inertia, [it] essentially "[great] elements" and the senses and is the object of experience and liberation.
Review of Vyasa: Sattva is of the nature of clarity (light), rajas - activity, Tamas - inertia (of rest) 1.
These modes as a separate [entity] subject to mutual influence, they vary continuously and are characterized by the connection and disconnection, [they] acquire forms of manifestation by relying on each other and have different potencies, which are not mixed together even when you are in a relationship of domination and subordination [they] are a result of the difference of the potentials belonging to the same or to different classes. They fully reveal its presence in cases when they belong to the main role 2; even when they subordinate the reality of the [other modes] can be logically derived on the basis of [their] activities included  dominant [guna]; their function is to be used to accomplish the purpose of the Purusha, [they] fulfill a supporting role for [single] only the fact of being close, like [as it happens] magnet; [they are] functioning without [any external] causes, following the deployment of one [of the gunas], collectively, they are indicated by the word "Pradhana" 3, [i.e. first cause]. It gets the name "visible".
So, it is [visible] in fact, "[great] elements" 4 and the senses. As "[great] elements" - earth, etc., - it develops in subtle and gross forms. As the senses - hearing, etc., it is also evolving into subtle and gross forms.
It is [visible] never exist without the use of; on the contrary, it is deployed purposefully, and it serves the purpose of enjoyment and liberation of puruṣa 5.
Here pleasure [i.e. experience], there is the establishment of the private nature of desirable and undesirable qualities out of the division [of the Purusha and sattva].
Liberation - the establishment of the true nature of the enjoyer, [i.e., puruṣa].
In addition to the two [definitions] have no other knowledge. So, in this regard it was said: "Indeed, one suspects that there is another knowledge of who the three modes as the figures in the Purusha as the doer, but [this] same and [simultaneously] not the same kind that sees any form of existence represented by [someone] the fourth watcher of their activities" 6.
- But how these two experiences and liberation created by the mind (buddhi) and are related to the mind attributed to the Purusha?
- Just as victory or defeat is achieved only thanks to the soldiers who are attributed to them, Mr 7, [because] he is the one who eats their fruit, and attachment [to the cycle of existence], and release [him], associated only with the mind, are attributed to Purusha. He is the enjoyer of its fruits.
The mind is in chains, has not yet implemented the purpose of the Purusha: the achievement of this goal is liberation.
Thus, the comprehension, recall, judgment, denial, the knowledge of the true nature and lust for life, unfolding in the mind 8, are attributed to Purusha as really existing in him, because he enjoys its fruits.
Following [Sutra] aims to determine differences in the internal form of "visible", that is modes.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: And read again the aphorism itself.
Student: Visible, has the nature of clarity, activity and inertia. It is, at its core, the great elements and the senses, and has the object of experience and liberation.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: let's explain this aphorism. It is clear that everything that we perceive in the external world we perceive according to the exact copy that occurs in the buddhi. Buddhi in turn, draws these pictures on the ground that gave him the senses. The senses convey to him the qualities that they perceive in any given moment, about the objects that are made of five elements. Or about certain phenomena (or processes) that characterize these objects are modified.
We said earlier that everything that we perceived, is perceived in three, as some say, "the modes", States: in the state of Tamas, in the state of rajas, in the state of sattva.
Enough, at first glance, vague characteristics of all phenomena, but it is very specific, if you look from the point of view of "looking", that is, from the point of view of our "I" that is identified with a certain view of himself inside of them.
And here all the phenomena which come in buddhi, by its thumbprint divided into these three qualities. Some phenomena are blackout imprint, some imprint of the activity, some print clarity. But all manifestations of the external factors.
On the other hand, all these five elements, all the other moments that made the world is just energy in different forms. It is in some form of energy, which forms our body, including buddhi. Recall that the buddhi is the finest matter, but still matter. Or, if you prefer, the finest condensed energy, if we consider matter as energy in a state of clarity, in the state of sattva. The root cause of matter in a single plan. But if more is present a state of clarity, there is such a body as the buddhi. If begins to dominate the rajas, or generally works only rajas, that some organs of our senses. This is the same matter, the same energy that has shaped our senses, but more with a touch of rajas. Student: the Subtle senses? Vadim Zaporozhtsev: No, why the subtle senses? As subtle senses, and so rude...After all, in the end, when we see something gross senses, he is also somehow leaking. And it also comes with the involvement of some matter or some energy. And this matter, or this energy colored change (that is, the information goes). And, finally, when matter is in the third state, in the state of Tamas, it is perceived, is a gross physical matter.
These three modus, on the one hand, when we treat our body, is divided into three parts. Exactly the same can be applied to all external objects or events that we perceive through our body. And our experience therefore is divided into these large phenomena.
While I'm here nothing more I can add I will not. Let's go further.
Student: But they themselves are not in pure form? It's always some kind of proportion?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Well, Yes. Usually one dominates. Although that happens or does not happen in its pure form, we should seriously consider. Very seriously to think. Could there be any element in a pure form?.. For example, rajas or sattva.
I think that, of course, in the vast majority of cases this manifests itself in the form of a mixture: a little bit, a little bit different. But come on!
19. Specific, nonspecific, only a symptom and lack of symptom of the essence of the form [deploy] VCO 1.
Review of Vyasa: This [the"great]" elements - akasha (space), wind, fire, water and earth - the essence of the specific [form] nonspecific "slim germs" of sound, touchable (tactus), color, taste and smell 2. Similarly, hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell the essence of [a specific form) buddhi 3, and speech, hands, feet, organs of excretion and reproduction, the essence of the organs of action. Eleventh [on] — Manas (intellect) 4 - has as its object all [form].
These [the bodies of] the essence of the specific [form] nonspecific [i.e., General], properties of individuation 5. All of them [together] constitute 16 modifications of the gunas.
Six nonspecific [forms] is "delicate Bud" sound, "delicate Bud" tangible, "delicate Bud" of color, "delicate Bud" taste and "delicate Bud" smell. Thus, sound and other ["slim germs"], having respectively one, two, three, four and five properties, [represent] the five nonspecific [forms], the sixth of the same non-specific [form] is the only "individuation" (self). This is the six nonspecific [forms] deployment "great" [entity] which has the nature of pure being.
The higher one is non-specific [forms], is the "only sign", nature, [called] "the great". In it, endowed with pure being, these [six forms of] develop to their highest limit is 6.
In the process of involution they are staying in this "great" being with pure being, pass into a state that is neither existing nor nonexistent, neither one nor the other [simultaneously] in the unmanifest, "deprived sign", in the first cause (Pradhana) 7. This ["great", the essence] is the transformation [of the gunas] in the form of "just-sign" and "no symptom" is their transformation [at the stage] of "neither existence nor non-existence".
Thus, the purpose of the Purusha is not the cause [of the deployment modes] as "absence of symptom". Because the property to be the target of the Purusha does not act as a status reason of "absence of symptom" in the beginning [of the deployment modes], so far the presence of Purusha cannot be the cause of this [state]. It is not generated by the purpose of the puruṣa, and is therefore called eternal 8.
Regarding the three specific conditions [Gong], the property to be the purpose of the puruṣa, and advocates of their cause in the beginning [of the deployment], and since this purpose is the instrumental cause [of their appearance], they are called impermanent.
The mode, however, although he finds in [the relevant] sequence [mentioned] properties do not disappear and do not occur 9. They appear as if endowed with the properties of generation and destruction due to the fact that a particular [empirical] form, inherent qualities, have the [properties] devastation in the past the occurrence in the future.
[To illustrate this we consider the] example: "Devadatta becomes poor.
Because his cows are dying. Poverty is a consequence of the death of cows, but not a consequence of the destruction of his own form [of existence]". The same argument [applies to specific empirical forms].
[As] only "signs" directly related to [the state of] "lack of feature". Being closely related, it nevertheless differs [from it], for the sequence [deployment modes] cannot be violated. Similarly, six non-specific [forms] that are closely related to "only sign" that differs from it due to the constant sequence [deployment modes]. Similarly, the elements and the sense organs associated with non-specific [forms, at the same time] different from them.
As mentioned earlier, there is [any] other entity in excess of the specified [forms] as specified [form] to other entities are not converted. As for the transformation of their qualitative certainty, qualities and conditions, it will be considered in the future 10. Visible, [thus] explained. Following [Sutra] is intended to define their own forms seeing [i.e., puruṣa].
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: once again the aphorism.
Student: "Specific and nonspecific, is only a symptom and lack of symptom – the essence of the form of the deployment of the Gong".
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: To quickly explain this aphorism, we need actually to run through the fact that it represents the other half of this Universe is energy. We remember that all that we can only meet in this world, consists of two parts: either consciousness or energy. And here examines the second half for energy.
The energy that is in different vibrational States – in a rough state, in a more subtle state which actually creates everything from space, ending this gross matter. And by its nature energy is the presence of the ability forever to transform. That is, if we see a piece of cloth, which we think are eternal and fixed, for example the great pyramid: how many thousands of years stood for and I think will stand forever. But nothing is eternal in the world of energy. Even if we consider the most inert matter, to the seemingly never-changing, it's still only a matter of time, since any matter transformirovalsya.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because it is energy. And energy, speaking everyday language, is there a property to change. A specific process, like the world was going on, we have, in General, considered. But I will repeat it. There are so-called thin elements, there are gross elements. There are five gross elements that made this entire universe. In the yoga system is the common ideological division: earth, water, fire, air (ether), space. It is like a manifestation in a rough form of more subtle principles of manifestation - the so-called tennants.
When does the energy come from and is painted a kind of certain way that turns the energy in any vibrational state. It is difficult to say, is a certain degree of abstraction, but to recognize energy in a form, on the one hand, our sense of smell. On the other hand, if such energy with such a color, that is, coarsens or is in a state of Tamas, this leads to the fact that there is the element of earth. Similarly, there is energy, which is painted in such a vibration that, as a rule, all the pulses of energy in a typical vibration we perceive as taste information flows. If these vibrations to make a more rough, there is water.
Disciple: what it means to "adjust accordingly"?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: If they appear in a mode or condition of Tamas. But, of course, there is not any particular water and not any particular land, and the state is, if anything, the degree of condensation energy, the degree of compaction. In liquid the liquid may be water, and maybe alcohol. But is meant by "water" is not pure water, and the state... vatoobraznye.
So for the remaining five elements. The last item that is most difficult to understand and the fantastic is an element of the space. So, if you take energy and to paint it in some kind of regular vibration, and force her to appear in a rough form, we get our physical space. For example, the space of this room. But, on the other hand, all pulses, which are characterized by approximately the same color, we pass on the information channel of hearing. What does this mean? This does not mean that we hear directly of tanmatra! No. But we feel... but tell me, what is the sound to our physical senses - ear?
Student: It's vibrations in the air.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is vibrations in the air, Yes. But they are made of... some kind of frequency there is a certain, color, vibration. Within us there is some kind of mechanism. The eardrum begins to vibrate, the pulse is transmitted in the future is already in the nerve fiber, and inside the nerve fibres, nothing, of course, does not vibrate. But this impulse is transmitted with the same color, with the same frequency. I do not know how to say it. Passed in our minds, in our Manas. And as soon as information comes but with such a characteristic coloration of the sound, not a specific sound, but generally sound coloration, it goes through a thin body of sound perception and directly via the Manas to the buddhi. We begin to perceive the Universe. Now, there are state certain colors of energy that manifest in subtle, and there are those that are manifested in the rough. Those that painted the state of Tamas (inertia), active (rajas) and the state of sattva, and they also produce different vibration.
Our senses, our body, in the end, even our buddhi is also composed of these five elements, but only in the state of sattva. Also quite complex, probably design. To talk about this very exciting, very interesting, here is something to think about what analogy to hold, but we still have just no time for it. Because in the end, it's just as it said, Pradhana. That is a manifestation of the external world, which from the beginning of the cycle appeared, turned around, and at the end of the cycle will dissolve, roll up and leave.
So, on the one hand, there is consciousness, which illuminates and which invariably. On the other hand, is energy in its different forms - forever changing. And consciousness, are actually static, highlights the ever-changing energy.
Student: how is the space changing?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: In what sense?
Student: If the space is just energy...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Good question! Now the new owner of modern physics. A gentleman arrived from America, brought here by English. But they say there is such and in Russian translation. This is the modern view of physicists on the picture of the world. Absolutely amazing! I will not now recount, but there is a hypothesis that in the moment of the big Bang, when our universe was formed, there was no space, no time. I emphasize this point of view of physicists. It is not yogic manuscripts.
We (I mean people who study yoga) are in a privileged position: on the one hand, it is possible to read some legacy of the ancient sages, but it is in some sense unfounded. They just say that they somehow justify roughly, but not completely. Because of the knowledge just got lost. On the other hand, is the point of view of modern physics, that every step aligns and is based on very specific achievements that you can double-check.
So, this hypothesis is that at the time of the explosion formed everything, including space. In fact, the explosion itself is enough that it is difficult to present the phenomenon: there was no space, and then it began to expand. Imagine that our universe exploded many billions of years ago, and then went to the border of occurrence of the space. That is, the space expands as if the lack of space. It is very hard to imagine yourself. But the results are quite modern calculations (mathematical, primarily because the physics there is a touch by the apparatus of mathematics), even now our universe after billions of years, still continues to expand. Every second of space is expanding, expanding and expanding. Here is one of the points of view.
Student: In the absence of space?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. In the absence of space - something that we are very hard even to imagine.
Student: But this is something beyond...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Beyond our mind which thinks inside. And by and large we can understand it, when we start to use not the mind, which is also a kind of a product space.
In the principles of reason already includes the space itself and fundamentally "over your head" above what is built. It is believed that no robot will never be smarter than its Creator – man. That is exactly the same here. It is tempting to apply the same hypothesis to what our mind cannot understand, including what is space and time.
Here's another aspect – time. The mind works in space and in time. He's already late. Nevertheless, yoga has brought some knowledge about it. And how do we get knowledge? We gain knowledge indirectly through mathematical calculations. Not directly we know that is not so: we opened his eyes and saw. And with the help of mathematical calculations. And come to what was the cosmic egg, svertok compressed, which exploded and became the Universe. We got more mathematical calculations than thinking about it, you know?
So, what I want to say. This boundary of time and space and is now expanding. But if you can only carry such a thing as "now" to the other point outside this Universe, where there is still no space, no time, you know?
This sort of abstraction, which begins to "go crazy" our brains. This is, apparently, some such boundaries, from which the mind, we probably will no longer operate. It just stops working.
Disciple: Space, because you can apply only to objects? Yes? Or maybe outside of the space to exist?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: this is a good moments. And what is actually is the space?
I have a friend there, I don't know where he is now. He is a physicist. Now somehow fate threw us with it. I remember there was one problem: it was in the flask to vacuum. Not just a vacuum that is easily obtained, and what is called the "physical vacuum". That is a vacuum, which isn't even in Earth orbit, because there is a relative vacuum. There is a number of particles in some volume is still flying. Very sparse, but there. And this unit makes the vacuum is unthinkable, inconceivable even in orbit in the cosmic plan.
And as a result we have in the flask the sensor showed everything! Space left, but no matter. Matter in the conventional view. That is, there is virtually no one molecule or one atom. Of course, maybe a single fly. But it was a huge degree of dilution. And here I see before me: here it is - space. On the one hand, there is nothing on the other, there is something. Yes? The degree of abstraction. And there are such hypotheses: what is there? Because if there was nothing, why is it this size, and not, say, in half? Or not twice?
Student: The Bulb?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: no, No. It seems there is nothing, and yet there is something. What is? There are different in modern physics, the hypothesis that such a pure space, vacuum. One of them is that it is spontaneously arising the so-called virtual particles and then samoigrayuschego. Roughly speaking, from nowhere to nowhere. Whatever the analogy would lead to... let's Say, was a particle and an antiparticle. Here it is some time possessively, and then – again! – all merged and disappeared. And these particles constantly appear and disappear. They are born, some time there, then merge and disappear. But side by side, in another place, another arose. So, in fact, empty space, from this point of view, is considered as not empty, but filled by these virtual particles are born and disappear. And, of course, that it has some property, if you will, the density of these particles, above which can not be created. That is why, for example, a liter of vacuum is a vacuum liter, a liter of emptiness, and not, say, a thimble of emptiness. Because there is some geometry already introduced, and you even these virtual particles can't squeeze less than a certain amount. But again, thinking of physicists.
It's all tremendously interesting. It is so interesting that I honestly just panicked when I turn on the TV and watch shows, I suddenly realize that we have someone deliberately keeps the black body... or Rather, we ourselves will likely keep in a black body. We have some crap from morning to night is on TV. Crap Frank! And all the discoveries of science, the achievements of mankind, they are generally in the background, such as their and there. And I even compared the Western TV channels with our. So our – it's kind of a gray wretchedness, full of the same themes: there's the heating season began, there Lyapkin-Tyapkin was not allowed hot water, fifteen years can't solve this simple problem.
You know, as in the days of the Communists was... There are just four critical season in the year is winter, summer, spring and autumn. In short, it all now goes. The best minds are working on it, some new results emerge. Moreover, any physically real devices are built on it. I want to emphasize again, not questionable scientists say that they made superadditive, and two days later it turns out that they are charlatans. I'm not such mean. Are just very easy to get to the TV somehow. But the real work that goes on, and the actual results, somehow, remain in the background.
But our lives, I would venture to say that more depends on it than all of the presidents we choose or do not choose. Because, you Know, like an atomic bomb has forced a new look at the politics of the politicians. Whatever they were goats, but the threat that one day everything will disappear, forced them to think differently. And now that we fail to obtain this information. Including these moments, open space.
What is it? Time.
Student: time is the change of one particle relative to other particles.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Well, Yes... well, why don't we take this, head down the aphorisms. This is a very interesting topic, very.
Student: But Vyasa actually wrote... I don't understand. I read and can't a word... Lost the thought...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: I understand. Unfortunately, there are several factors. First, the Vyasa Buddhist point of view slips. Secondly, this is a comment. Thirdly, this is a comment translated. And, fourth, little translated, he issued the so-called scientific language.
In Soviet science until she collapsed - I do not know now - was a good tradition to write simple things complicated and difficult language to the uninitiated appeared something obscure and silent respect, you know? This deals with the purely material some points. Otherwise it will ask: "Guys, what do you all do?" While in the West the opposite is considered necessary knowledge strongly promote. The more people understand your problem, the more likely that you'll get the money for its further development. We had not quite so. A print here, including, and Soviet science. And when all these factors are added together and make you understand nothing...
Student: Cause no respect, and some kind of veil in the head.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: no, No! The fifth time, when you start to read these texts, they are quite logical. If you understand the concept of Buddhism, if you understand the concept of a prevailing point of view at the time when he wrote this treatise, the commentary of Vyasa, you might get pleasure from every sentence of Vyasa. And here he is a few for you seems to be taken out of context.
Student: the Words any more... These phrases out Loud over that... still reading, not enough time thought to comprehend. Says - and there is some next, next thought, next offer, and it builds up-accumulates-accumulates. Such a layer is formed.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: nothing, Nothing! Train your brain. This is useful. Went on.
20. The viewer is not that other, as ability of vision; though clean, [he] perceives [all] the content of consciousness.
Review of Vyasa: [Definition] "only a vision" 1 means not that other, as [clear] vision ability, free from [any] particular specifications. [Audience, that is] all that has reflective knowledge of the buddhi, [or mental]. It is not identical with the buddhi and not absolutely distinct from it. [Consider this in more detail].
So, it is not identical [buddhi].
Due to the known and unknown objects 2 buddhi is constantly changing. The fact that its objects — a cow, etc. or pot, etc.— are known or unknown, evidence of its variability. On the other hand, the property of objects to be cognized always makes it obvious nonsusceptibility Purusha change.
Truly impossible to buddhi as Purusha would be perceived, it is imperceptible. Thus, it is established [that all] acting as the object for the Purusha, is always known. Hence [it follows that [puruṣa] is not subject to change. Moreover, buddhi [there is always] for the purpose another as it works in the combination of [various reasons], whereas puruṣa [exists] for its own purpose.
So, buddhi is of the nature of the three modes because it determines the [properties] of all objects, and, [consequently], having the nature of the modes, is not animate, [that is, he is deprived of pure energy of consciousness]. Purusha — "the spectator" modes. Therefore, it is not identical [buddhi].
In this case, [can] assume that it is different [from buddhi].
- It is not absolutely distinct.
- Because the Purusha, although the clean [i.e. not possessing a specific spec], perceives [all] the content of consciousness. He sees these contents of consciousness as belonging to the buddhi. Watching [activity], buddhi, he manifests himself as [if he were] buddhi, though it is not in its essence. In this regard, it is said, for example: "the Energy of someone who is enjoying, not subject to change and is not absorbed [objects]. When she seems absorbed the changing object, it seems to be consistent with the manner of its activities. So, due to the similarity with the activity of the buddhi, [as it were] a form of pure consciousness, understood as the deployment of skills specific activities buddhi" 3.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: once again the aphorism read.
Student: "the Audience is nothing but a vision; though pure, he sees all the contents of consciousness."
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: We already by and large considered this aspect. But again, let's quickly run. We have our "I", our Purusha, which has a property such as consciousness. The rays of consciousness illuminate everything that is in the buddhi. And our "I" identifies itself with buddhi, identifies itself with its vision, which in the same buddhi is formed, and therefore it seems that "I" is connected with the buddhi, that "I" tied to the body by buddhi.
But really it's not. Their connection is only associative. Real connection there. Perhaps all! Went on.
Student: I also wanted to ask... "I" or Purusha, as here denoted, all the while identified with this process, as the vision: "visible", "vision" or "observe", "spectator". But it's not the same as the process of looking physical?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, it's an analogy. She may be closest to a certain process of our everyday life. What do you mean visible? When I see I'm not involved in anything and just take it. Similarly the property of consciousness to perceive them, simply to perceive, to make known that with which it comes into contact. And as our consciousness, if I may say so, is in contact with the buddhi, the buddhi penetrates with its rays... Even the word "rays" is not appropriate... That is enough of his presence in the buddhi, that it comprehended everything that happens in buddhi. Just as if we were looking in the buddhi and saw everything that was going on.
But here it is not watching, but just a way of understanding. Because when I hear something, I too perceive, but only in a different color. So here: our consciousness reveals that the total property - know what is happening in the buddhi, highlight or, if you prefer, listen to, or feel everything that happens in buddhi, or see everything that happens in buddhi - that is to obtain information about the condition of buddhi. And when I say "looks", this is the most simple close analogy, and nothing more.
Disciple: But, unfortunately, identify...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, of course. This is the problem. If we picked the right words for this process, if it could in principle be done, we would be in the next second rabotodatelei. If I speak the truth and I samoosa – all: I prosvetlilsia! Let's go further.
21. The essence of the visible [is to serve] its purpose.
Review of Vyasa: Visible appears as the object of the activities of the puruṣa, which is manifested as [the ability] vision; thus, the visible essence [is to serve] the purpose of the puruṣa. It is his [that is visible], its inner essence, is the meaning [of the sutras].
Because the inner essence [of the visible is to] be an object of perception for the other 1, then the implementation of the purpose of experience and liberation - it [more] is not perceived by Purusha. Due to loss of form comes cheznovice visible, but it does not disappear [for others].
- Why [this happens]?
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Here again the continuation of the same theme. I it differently to paraphrase.
What is actually need all this visible world? Also, by the way, somewhere has to do some tantric moments, according to which the whole visible world is made in order to sooner or later know the puruṣa itself. That is, from the point of view of yoga, Patanjali, presents this idea of grandiose was intended to sooner or later know the puruṣa itself. But in order to know itself, it, as a man with crutches, not able to use them, makes some workaround. At first she could not do anything to lock on to and grabs the first thing that can be identified. That is, our "I" through his consciousness grabs the first external thing that can be identified. Then this thing the result of a long evolution transformirovalsya, cleaned and transformed into what is called buddhi. This is what the Purusha grabbed.
Here she saw, grabbed, tied and savetodatabase. She could even tell where and for what. No anchor, no reference point. You know, if you say that there is a treasure, twenty meters, thirty meters to the right, where Roy and dig out. And you ask "how And what to measure? From what, from what point to measure?" And that lack of a starting point leads you in the discouraged state of incomprehension. That's about the same thing here: all these pictures of the Universe, generally all-around the world, they are likely discouraged Purusha, or soul, or our "I". It looks outward and can't be tied down, never could understand where the top, where the bottom, where is it, isn't it. And it grabs even for something stable, and then begins is something stable to develop. It is as if external, then this external turns into what is called our buddhi, then there is a representation of the outside world through what is an exact copy of this arises in the buddhi, and then it is a state, which you asked for earlier: when "I" is immersed in itself or disappears from the buddhi the sense of self.
Misconception about Purusha that Purusha himself ascribes and accurate copy of which arises in the buddhi, after the process of disidentification from buddhi, virtually disappears. Everything dissolves. And buddhi, Purusha, for the "I" disappears, the entire external world disappears. Because of the outside world and our "I" can say and says only using the mold or the image that it saw in the buddhi. But for the rest of the living beings, it does not disappear. Therefore, a yogi who attained enlightenment, and said before to finally get out of this world, the whole world disappeared. "I don't see it around - the words of Sri Ramakrishna - one but God. Someone I can teach, if I always see the God? I don't see the difference". What else can I do here, if there is no separation? If there is one God? And then he disappears, he disappears in the highest enlightenment.
Student: What does that mean?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: It becomes a very positive step, does not disappear in our concept nihilistic, you know, in anything, in the ashes, and he rises to a higher step. Apparently went somewhere like.
So it is clear that for him, for Ramakrishna in that moment, when he said: "I see nothing but God," he really didn't see anything but God. But for all the people around him and the world remained. Was the world of phenomena, and they are not seen anywhere God. They felt, rather, the manifestation of God in the Bhagavad Gita rather than around it. It is approximately of the same series. When one is freed, from his personal point of view, the universe disappears. And this is true. That is, he is the winner of the Universe. He has some idea about the Universe, and it expands to the size of it, and then beyond the Universe. But other creatures who have left the buddhi undissolved, continue to stew in this mess for as long as they do not achieve the same state. Go ahead.
Okay? No? Difficult?
Student: Yeah...In General it is clear.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Come on, if questions, ask. If not, then go.
Student: - Brains, I don't know...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Brains go, Yes. Brains will go. But this is the first, so to speak, run. Such treatises at a time not studied, you understand, right? This is the first time of introduction. Then the time comes, you again think over it, you know? But we must still know where to start.
Student Just having a hard time just written. Other more understandable to me
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: nothing, Nothing. With difficult must also be able to work.
22. Although it disappeared for the one who implemented [their] target, but it does not work for others because of the properties to be shared.
Review of Vyasa: Although visible disappeared for one Purusha, who realized his goal, however, it has not disappeared for another Purusha, by reason of the properties to be common [for all]. The visible had ceased to exist for wise Purusha, but not deprived of the wisdom of the entities [of experience], which is not yet implemented [its] goal 1. Thus, [visible] becomes an object of action - the vision - and finds its own form through the [inner] forms another. And therefore, due to the fact that the ability of vision and the ability to be visible have the attribute of eternity of [their] Union is explained as having no beginning [in time]. It has been said: "Due to the beginningless ties substances there is also beginningless connection [one] only."
The next Sutra is intended to clarify the meaning of this connection.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: let us focus on the meaning of this aphorism. I'll try to explain it not only in the framework of the classical theory of yoga of Patanjali, but according to some views directly to our School.
So, we remember, was formed this whole universe. The absolute is transformed to the level of God. There was a higher reality beyond them initially, before was made this whole universe before any space and time. And there was then nothing but the absolute. I'd call it an absolute. It is hard here to pick a name because in the Upanishads and the Vedic traditions it is simply called "Something".
Student: Brahman is so called?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Speaking of "Brahman", we mean the presence of at least some... not that qualities, but qualities is. And when we say the word "That", as if we something point to something without naming it. We don't talk about him absolutely nothing except the one fact that it "there" there. So when I speak about the original, I will also sometimes stick to the word "That." And "Something" I mean something soulless, inanimate, just there, but in the sense of a first cause, and thus what happened then the whole universe.
So, I made a giant mind and a giant energy, and these giant primordial consciousness and energy became what is called our world, our Universe. And within this world, within this Universe, this gigantic consciousness and energy giant, separated small pieces is what we call separately taken by living beings, Purusha, or Atmans. As a result of the long transformation of these creatures turned into people. But it remained a giant mind and a giant energy – something in common is called the Lord God.
Again: it was absolute. He separated part. From this part appeared as if "I" God. When we say "Lord God", we mean at least some quality. When we say "We", we only point out that it was; no qualities without implying that transcendent quality. While we may extol the qualities of the Lord God, the Almighty who controls everything.
Student: When we say, "Lord God," refers to absolute consciousness?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, absolute consciousness, absolute with great energy. What I did, the whole world. This whole world - is actually the energy of the Creator in one or another of its transformation. So he is big of his consciousness. When a Muslim prays to Allah or the Christian Father in Heaven and so on and so forth, then this implies that it is a giant consciousness. But even higher is the Fact.
That is, it is as if God is outside of qualities. But really, the difference between them-no. This is only the part of the world, which we call God, or in the name of yoga – Isvara.
There is the concept of Isvara.
Ishvara is like the legislator, the one who controls the Universe. So, that īśvara is a small Department called human. And sooner or later, when one method of yoga reaches a certain level, for him, the universe disappears. Because it is small, passing in different ways, reaches the point of the original, outside of the absolute qualities. So for that person, so to speak, the whole universe disappears. Once a person reaches a certain level of spiritual development, he says something like: "I don't see anybody else, but God." And then the universe in our usual sense disappears for him. He suddenly realizes that he is not for the Universe, and the universe was for him. The emphasis is changing. And everything dissolves.
It is clear that this man is freed once and for all, he becomes absolutely free. But the original Ishvara who was, is. And there are still millions-millions-billions of other souls that were. They are left unanswered. They are not going away. Here is a very interesting logical connective. You know, as it was the Communists? Victory – the building of communism in one country, right? This, in my opinion, the concept of Lenin was. Marx said that communism will come from everywhere simultaneously – this apocalyptic, right? That is, everywhere on the globe, one fine morning or day communism will come. In later developments of the same Lenin says that there is nothing to wait around the globe, and it is possible to build communism in a single country. Through socialism. In yoga you can spend the same analogy, only here it works: it is not necessary to wait until illumine the whole world, you can be enlightened myself. And personally for you this world will disappear.
Student: look, what's interesting. Yes, it is, of course, everything is clear and logical, but it meant that the person who reaches such a level, acquires the status of God himself? That is, in the fullness embodies it all, and he becomes subject to all this energy?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Exactly, Yes.
Student: And all of his qualities? Then he can change the world, to influence others?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Ah, I see where you're going. Why are those souls who have reached the heights of many thousands of years ago, didn't change the world for the better? That is what your question is veiled?
Student: If ... everything, why he doesn't?!
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Fair question. It seems that God is omnipotent, but he does not see everything. But those souls that have walked this path and reached the ultimate goal, why they haven't changed, although they have everything in hands?
That's what I want to say: fail! Changed. For this reason and changed. For this reason, by and large, yoga and running. For this reason, all spiritual knowledge work. You only need one. Requires by and large your desire to get it.
Student: the point Here, perhaps, I think that everyone has these qualities of the absolute. Here he wants to be any animal ...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: exactly, Yes.
Student: What God can't snap my fingers and tell him: "Everything! Here, everything!"?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: what's the point? Then why was this whole idea? You know? The idea when it was made, it should work. But your question is very good.
Student: He is good in what way?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: It is closer to our School, to the explanation of our School than it might seem. Because this way you can very easy to communicate with previous teachers.
They have reached this level. And this does not mean that they are gone and they do not care about those who are left. No, they left behind the maximum, they have changed the world. It has always been: as soon as the human soul begins to look towards spirituality, then starts to come through, immediately begins to receive knowledge, then people start coming over in General, all this "confusion" instantly starts to work. The only thing required of the soul of man, that he just was interested in it, so he just aspired to it, so he just stared in that direction. You know?
Our world balanced. Every moment is a potential moment of enlightenment. The second that I now lived here, is no different from the seconds, when the Buddha has prosvetlilsia or when all these great yogis have prosvetlilsia, - does not differ. Then there are all the conditions that were then, and remain now, and they always will be. In this respect the world is done very well. Lord God, it is well made world.
But on the other hand, each of the people is the Lord God in miniature, but which began to distort the world. And why all the negativity we encounter that kind of negativity, what we face? We are faced, in General, distortions that make other souls, other human soul. That is, they distort a little bit the world. Oh, and then comes the law of karma: as you sow, so shall you reap.
Those, in a sense, hard-hitting pictures that sometimes are happening in the world, very large - a product of our own energy and our own consciousness. So when we are fighting... for example, a political leader. All his life he devoted to improving the lives, fought. It seemed to him that he struggled with some kind of extremists, fascists, capitalists, I do not know who. But by and large he fought with himself. Because what he faced was a product of his own, but only early. It is a complex pattern of cause and effect.
Student: Yeah, everyone sees what he sowed ...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yeah, so here this is the answer... What is the universe? She pessimistic or optimistic? It is a meaningless question.
You know, I ask, what in the world any more: good or evil? Grief or joy? This question is meaningless for the reason that universe, it seems to be adjusted. What gave rise to what you get. If a long time-a long time created a situation that was evil, you encounter him and you need to counteract it, to stamp it out. But it turns out that you eradicate it in the first place, in itself. Similarly, and good. If you do good, the universe appears before you in a continuous feast. That you yourself have created! The universe is in this sense subordinate. She only obeys.
Therefore, there is a problem, the questions that our mind is not responding. And one of these problems, of these questions is whether our world is pessimistic, is it a hell or a prison, where everyone is suffering, or is it a place for celebration and joy of life. To answer this question reason will never be able to. It's a higher level mind. There are only of the highest spiritual knowledge. Incidentally, this is one of those moments where for the first time a person is faced with an unsolvable question...
Back to the aphorism. So for the yogi who methods yoga starts practicing, there is no evil.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because there is no evil inside him. Evil is not outside. All that the yogin sees, he only sees the game as God as cause and effect. He sees that every act originated, and was the result of a previous cause, which it was spawned. That is, he sees not a single piece – what we see, and sees the bigger picture. And why it started, why it came to this, where it will go in the future. And that's what the world is becoming more and more joyful, it replaces the negative karma positive karma, and then refuses this positive karma. Because it's still just the level of our world. And then there is highest level. And here he goes out there and the world kinda disappears for him. But he does not disappear for the remaining people. For him personally, he is gone, he is with this world can do anything. He can walk through walls, he can materialize some items because he is on another level. But for the other creatures that have not risen to this level, this whole world remains with all its hard constraints and moments.
Sometimes I've asked myself the question. Read a book about something like Indian yoga, he describes how he in the thirties was sitting in the Himalayas, shone, the air was flying. And I think: damn, this very moment, we in the camps were millions of people, and every day they were killed quite terrible methods. That is, in this regard, even the Nazi concentration camps "rest". There, at least, was a machine for killing, and here was a vehicle for mockery: there before to kill you even chased away so... So, I asked myself: how can this be? In the same minute on the same planet, one experiences tremendous joy and happiness, and the other to hell? Yeah hell with this match! And I could not understand why this is so. Usually when we read about some atrocities of the Inquisition, we think, "well it was in the fifteenth century. What to talk about it? They were all so". But when I say now, that at the same time is, for example, slaves - people grab in slavery, even in the most civilized countries in Europe. Absolutely crazy horrific stories begin to emerge in our time, not in the fifteenth century. Nowadays there are absolutely heinous crimes. How can this be? How does this compare? As the universe is suffering? When if there's one world there's another world.
It is strong enough questions. And the answer to them in the long run is here in this aphorism: when a man goes for him personally, it all disappears. But it does not disappear for everyone else. As long as they do not go in this direction. That is the meaning.
Student: full of non-duality to people only when it reaches to the level of the absolute, to the level that this point is raised?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, exactly.
Student: Then really there is no difference between sansara and Nirvana, Maya dissolves completely?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: No. You know, really difficult for us to talk about it, I don't even want this topic to talk about, because talking about the point about the Absolute, about How we can't we operate with the mind. We really like the kids who build model: here, as it can be. Therefore, the same samsara and Nirvana is, on the one hand, the same thing, on the other hand, their moments, and it's a little bit from another school. This more rapid methods, it is not the classical approach of Patanjali. I don't want us to be confused. Let's now classic approach of Patanjali, consider, and then everything else. Let's go further!
23. The connection is the cause of the attainment of the inner self [that is] the ability to be the property and the ability to be the master.
Review of Vyasa: puruṣa-Lord is associated with the visible [that is] of their property in order to vision. What is the perception of the visible as a result of this connection, we have the experience and the fact that is the comprehension of the inner nature of Seeing, there is liberation.
Connection [is until] the termination of the vision; therefore the vision is called a cause of separation. Vision and lack of vision are a pair of opposites 1, so the lack of vision is called the cause of the connection.
The vision here is not the cause of liberation. The destruction of the shackles [is achieved] because of the lack of ignorance. This is liberation. When the vision disappears, the lack of vision that is the cause of bondage. Therefore, the vision, the knowledge, is called the cause of absolute separation.
- What is a "lack of vision"? Whether there is a predominant field of activity gun? Or is it the occurrence of "pervorodnoe" which "makes" the objects to the owner of the ability of vision, when there is a visible not the mere act of seeing? Or this property Gong to have [their own] purpose? Or is it ignorance (avidyā) is eliminated, along with its mental contents and serves as a seed for the emergence of their mental contents? Or is it a manifestation of the formative factors (Samskaras) in their movement, after they extinguished the rest?
Regarding [the latter] it was said: "the Root cause of abiding only in a state of rest cannot be the cause, because it does not produce change forms. Similarly, if it is only in a state of motion, it may not be the root cause in view of eternity changes forms". Because it operates in fact, and in another as she receives in the ordinary sense, the title of the first cause, but not in another [basis]. The same argument [applies] to other imaginary reasons 2.
Some believe that the lack of vision is precisely the vision ability, as it follows from the Sruti: "the root causes has the goal of identifying yourself." Purusha, possessing the ability to learn everything knowable, does not see before the deployment of the [root causes]. In turn, the visible, can serve as the cause of all consequences, in this case, it is not perceived.
Others believe that lack of vision is a property of both 3. The vision, being the inner essence of the visible, in need of Purusha [as promotion reason], when she becomes a characteristic of the object. Similarly, the lack of visible, not being the inner essence of the Purusha, needs to be visible [as promotion reason], when it manifests itself as a characteristic of the Purusha.
But others explain the lack of vision only as knowledge based on perception 4.
These are all speculations, which are found in the Sastras. This diversity of speculative builds is [nevertheless], the General subject of the connection of the individual self with the gunas.
As to the connection of the individual consciousness with your buddhi, then...
Student: And then the next aphorism.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: once again the aphorism is read.
Student: "Connection is the cause of the attainment of the inner self that has the ability to be the property and the ability to be a master."
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Again, I don't want to comment on the commentary of Vyasa. Let's consider again this situation with the expiring soul, and with all that may be visible, that is, our whole Universe, from the point of view of the mechanism, which has already Patanjali wrote and which we have already examined.
So, we remember that Purusha has two qualities, i.e. does not have (it has no qualities), and is manifested in two qualities. One of these qualities is consciousness. This consciousness illuminates all that is in the buddhi. As long as Purusha identifies through his consciousness of himself with the buddhi, is visible. Once as a result of evolution, due to the practice of yoga buddhi works as a mirror and Purusha sees itself with the light of his own consciousness, if I may say so, all that is visible disappears. In this sense the world is unreal. Once this happens, the whole world disappears.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because the world, which perceives every person as we have said, is just the image that emerges in our buddhi. Every person, whether sitting or doing something, does not know what the world really is. He knows only what is drawn on the screen buddhi. And buddhi draws a kind of picture in accordance with the fact that bring the senses to life.
Student: so it's all filtered, clipped?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Filtered, trimmed, processed, in General, distorted. The picture arises that puruṣa in the buddhi is watching. And the Purusha seems that the whole world is. But as soon as rasskazyvaetsya Purusha with the buddhi ceases to pay attention to it, and the whole visible world disappears like a TV show. Here the TV is on, we watch "the Club of travelers", and we think that we together with the author somewhere travel. But if we press the button to turn off the screen, the screen goes blank and the whole world disappears. That's about the same situation here. And everything else – directly to Association game.
If we see and if in our own buddhi have an idea about themselves as about the body, about mind, about feelings and identify with them, we see the whole world and player in this world that is ourselves. As soon as we stop looking at buddhi, we rabotodatelyam with this view, with this virtual doll within the buddhi with the doll that we believe ourselves.
Here we believe that I have a body, I have mind, I have feelings. Why is this so? Because in my buddhi-drawn picture of the world through the senses, plus a picture of myself, what I myself believe. I think I am this body, these senses, this mind and the Purusha is identified with this picture. But one image depends on another image. The outside world is somehow evolving, and it can at me to act, he can engage in some processes, and I'm going to say ... "objectively". Take the situation. Got me some enemies, drugged me, and I began to tell them all the secrets. Why? I said, "how else? I was affected the other part of the Universe in the form of some chemistry or something". But it's as if two players of the same level, the same plan. However, this is misleading. This is a fallacy only when the buddhi does not work anymore when consciousness reveals its own self. Then this game goes by the wayside and disappears. And before these all relations obeying or obey, observer or observation – all actually takes place in the buddhi.
That's why in many schools, I have already talked about this and once again, believe that all is mind. That everything is merely mind games. And in a sense it is. But again only to a certain level. On the one hand, to say that we can only restoratives with the mind, with buddhi. But until then to say so we have no right.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, because we depend on them! Know what right could tell people about the Lord God if he does not believe in him? A purely logical construction.
Student: I wanted to ask... are We at the seminars studied the Chitta. There is such a thing. How it is involved? That is, the ability of the Citta or the buddhi space? As it be included?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Rather, both simultaneously. But that's a separate issue. It is as if the ability of the buddhi to highlight... That is it's like the function itself. On the other hand, this is a very delicate feature, it depends on consciousness. It is a tool of consciousness that operates within the buddhi. That is, buddhi has these pictures, but this is not enough. They also still have something.
Student: we Need to find?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: it works through the consciousness of the Chitta. But this is a very rough explanation. Let's discuss it later.
Student: That's still a question. If you use yoga techniques to purify the buddhi of all experience, because the mind can look at itself? Buddhi will be a mirror in which consciousness sees itself? But consciousness can see through the buddhi to the world as if through a clean mirror glass?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Absolutely right. You're absolutely right to notice that when everything is cleared, the consciousness looking at the world through buddhi, and the world seems very different. It is a different world. Only one question is small. But first, here's what...
When this happens, before yogi truly appears fantastic when buddhi pure and he sees reality. It comes a lot of powers called abilities. To him comes wisdom, comes to him the knowledge of this world just up and down. But here, I have a small spoon of tar in this idealistic view of the pour.
The fact is that as long as we do, in principle, use the mind, by the fact that we have limited reality. The very fact that we use the mind. Not our muddy greyish mind, and the mind is the greatest yogi who has perfected it, all the senses opened mind. And, of course, fantastic, all very different, but still: if you use the mind, though very subtle, but blind to the reality imposed. Reality is impossible to see with the mind, to the mind this reality is not affected. What is the last restrictive trait in mind that works even in yoga, clean everything thoroughly? It is this ability of Ahamkara, that this ability to divide. Share. That is, it is, in General, sees reality, but continues to... the Very functioning of the mind implies separation. Now there is a caveat.
Student: And when the mind, when consciousness is directed to the reality?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Direct experience, bypassing whatever it is? Some call it as if straight here is the word... a Direct connection to the information field. Sounds very fierce, but it conveys the meaning. The attainment is not by means of indirect some methods of perception, through the senses, through the mind, and some direct way, from consciousness to consciousness. By and large, from the personal consciousness of man to the consciousness of the Lord God, who, of course, gives the whole picture without distortion. That is, as an opportunity to look at the world not with their eyes, and the eyes of the Lord God. And this is the level beyond the mind. As it were, directly.
Hard to say on these topics. For obvious reasons: we need the slightest personal experience similar experiences to at least some clue in my head was that we intuitively started to understand, about what speech. But when any experience is this, you know, spiritual, extrasensory, then it's all, of course, very interesting, very exciting and intuitively suggests the... well, you already begin to understand what was said. Don't even mind, and, indeed, something more.
Student: Intuition, it turns out the property is not of the mind, and consciousness? Yes? What is called intuition?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. But see, here here, while we are in the human body, intuition-intuition, but to introduce it all to our level of understanding, you still have to work the subtlest energy. The person comes to an intuitive knowledge, but he invests in a verbal form, he says: "do Not go down this road, walk this road". The very fact that it came the knowledge that he was clothed in a form, though the form of words, suggests that it is not intuition, and that through intuition obtained in mind. That is, there are a few step approach. And the biggest problem is to translate it.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Distortion. Without distortion, impossible to translate - can with minimal distortion or with the clearest analogies. That is why yoga, as a rule, always explain certain parables, by certain situations, by certain analogies. Because otherwise it's still impossible. Knowledge-the intuitive, non-verbal, but the push has to be transferred at the level of words and some thoughts, concepts, descriptions. Here's a book you can write.
Student: still in the mind that comes first. Still like the first reason. It needs to grab, and he comes to a certain limit and with this limit through the mind of the people will jump and intuitively aware of some...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: As you say... the Mind is a good helper. Even when it works intuition.
Imagine that you had the plant chief engineer. A great specialist. Here he worked, brought a model of some fighter to perfection, and then came across the point that we need to build the fighters differently. There should be some kind of antigravity engine to put. To think he can't, and it causes some academician. That is the academician in this scheme is intuition. The academician will not engage you that work in the factory. It gives an idea and sends it to the chief engineer, and chief engineer of her for implements of iron, so to speak. That's about the same situation: intuition gives us it all, but to clothe it in some so that we could operate within our world, within our minds, it has something specific to say, here still the mind is included. That is, the mind reaches its highest point, after which it becomes the most reliable and good tool. Very good, very reliable, you can charge him with any work, and it perfectly make.
Here is the analogy. Because without it, without reason, you can't operate inside this Universe. Since you plunged into these depths, the bathyscaphe and you need one that can work. In view of the submersible and is presented to our mind, and the person sitting inside the submersible, is, if you will, the intuition, through which the mind somehow showed up here...
Student: how to learn to listen to intuition or to develop this feeling? The more often you apply, the more it comes?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is a separate issue from the topic of Raja yoga.
It's just that sometimes it is possible to substitute some of his hallucinations intuition. Here's a delicate question. It is not this technique is that, here, wrote. This question is quite long practices. Because directly bound on the degree of absolute purity of meaning is impossible. So you have, say, twenty percent... That will come to you, say, some kind of a signal: twenty percent pure intuition, eighty percent of your hallucinations. You have to have the wisdom to filter. Then, of course, the percentage may change. No longer twenty, say, forty. But still there is always interference.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Well, not until the end we cleared the mind, the body. And it should be treated. Let's go further!
24. its cause is ignorance.
Review of Vyasa: [Ignorance is] a trace of the unconscious impressions caused by the false knowledge, that is the meaning [of the concept]. Buddhi, imbued with traces of past experiences from false knowledge 1, does not attain [the true nature] of the Purusha, though it is the purpose of his activities and returns to the performance of their [normal] function. However, the [buddhi], which comes to the attainment of the Purusha, attains the goal of its activities. Its function is exhausted, the lack of vision is eliminated, and because the reasons for the shackles no longer exists, it does not return [to fulfill its former functions].
In this context, some [opponent] tells the parable of the impotent accessed by a silly wife. She said: "Oh, my Lord! My sister has children. Why do I not have?" Husband is impotent says: "Dead, I will make you a posterity". And is there currently knowledge does not lead to the cessation of activities of consciousness. What is the hope that it will cause him in the future?
The one who is close to the status of teachers, responds to this [objection]:
"Do not release is the termination of the [activities] buddhi? This termination [is achieved] due to the cause of a lack of vision. A lack of vision that causes the shackles is avoided with the vision."
Here the liberation is the cessation of [the activity of] consciousness. Why is it [occurs] misconception that [anything] is not based?
So, the suffering that must be eliminated and its cause, referred to as "connection", explained together with the terms of [their activities].
Now consider what the Supreme deliverance 3.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: And once again the aphorism.
Student: "Its cause is ignorance."
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: the Situation in the following. As long as our consciousness has no vision of the Purusha, while the rays of the consciousness is not directed at our very "I", the Purusha, the being is in these chains of ignorance, shackles of enslavement chains bondage. And by and large is a slave.
And then there are very specific questions: well, if our Purusha has two qualities, or rather, it manifests itself in two qualities, one of which is the consciousness that illuminates all that is in buddhi, why this Purusha from the beginning not to highlight all that is in the Purusha, and not to send it on buddhi? Why not getting involved in this whole confusion of birth and death, since its beginning, there is not enlightened and not out of this Universe? Why all this fuss? Why all this dancing with the rebirth, with a long mechanisms for sharpening the buddhi that it becomes like a mirror and reflected the rays of consciousness in the direction of the Purusha? Why this has not happened from the beginning? What is the reason that we look to buddhi? Why is this so?
And you can fairly freely say: cause in the dark, you can not look in the direction of buddhi.
Student: What is ignorance?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: the Dark... When it starts to release? Liberation begins when ignorance is eliminated. By and large, the only obstacle or reason that separates us from the release is, ironically, ignorance. We do not look back. The wrong way, if so figuratively speaking.
Here then was a moment of objection: well, if we look in the wrong direction and continue to look in the wrong direction, and how can we get to look back, that is, toward himself, toward Purusha? If we look in the opposite direction, how can we turn back?
Here is the analogy: we are walking a process, this process removed the dark. Once ignorance is removed, once all obscuring factors removed, then nothing prevents, if roughly speaking, this consciousness can see itself. To turn and see itself. But again the word "turn" implies some kind of gesture: we need to turn around.
It is clear that every analogy limps. But she suggests the idea.
Here's another explanation. We need to go up, and we're running around in the plane. Someone might say, "who cares?!" No matter how you run in the direction you're running or yoga in the direction antiage you run, or something will run, what's the difference? You still running around in the plane. As run in the plane you can fly up? Is enough terms of straightforward logic, a serious question. But it and the answer is: by and large, our ability to fly is somewhat different from our ability to run in a plane running in the plane, we remove our ignorance. Once our ignorance is removed, we suddenly find in himself the ability to fly, we discover that we have always been able to fly, can fly and can do it at any second. And this second fly. You know? This is not something introduced. This is what we have pledged, and we do not use it for only one reason: this treasure is shrouded in a fog of ignorance. We are looking to the cloud of mist and think, "what to go?" But once the fog dissipates and we see this treasure, and of course, we're going to it. So, if you explain it quickly enough meaning.
Student: But if you bring your attention inward, in an inner space of their own, you see only darkness. I close my eyes and there is dark, some thoughts begin to emerge, you begin to detract from the focus...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Listen to me. You close your eyes and direct inside, but you are at this moment as he directed his vision in the buddhi, and direct. Here you have a big box of them, right? There are trees, our whole universe. And there is man with whom you identify yourself. And when you close your eyes and bring your attention inward, you, roughly speaking, a peek inside this man, which is still in the buddhi. You do not turn the gaze towards the Purusha, you know? That's the trick. Even when a man sat down, closed my eyes, focused, and directed his gaze inward and began to listen, something to grasp, then it seems that he directed his attention toward the self. But in fact he directed his gaze at the picture in the buddhi in the direction of the internal man, which is buddhi draws in the image of who we think we are. You know?
But it's still a very useful exercise.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because, if you look at this image of ourselves which we ourselves have built and begin to watch, you can see that, in General, this image itself represents nothing. That is we can push the idea still, the "look at of the beholder"! You know?
There is a saying - "look at looking." When we close our eyes and look, even inside ourselves, we still not looking at his "I". Is there a source where to look, is the goal – what looks. And here the situation is somewhat different, there is not inside and not outside. We look inside, and not outside, but we are looking at the viewer. We look at well, if you will, where these rays of consciousness. That is where this consciousness? This thing is not... It's something there that makes starts sometimes just to shake the body, you know? Starts automatically pranayama, the man pours then trying to grasp it. You know? He wakes up the Kundalini and all-all-all-all. But it's all from his point of view, is a side having no relation to him. That is, the very fact that he trying to figure it out, go automatically all the rest of yoga.
The body begins to "sausage and ivy", pardon the slang, in this way, as it would have to do in yoga.
Shankaracharya is for this reason this aphorism: "a Breath – this is when the thought comes: I am Brahman and nothing else". That is, you expand to Brahman, and this causes the breath. And the exhale is when we look into ourselves and understand that I am not the mind, I am not feelings, I am nothing, nothing. This automatically leads to exhalation. We as be – fit! – from this exit, right? And he believes that when a person thinks, this is the real pranayama, and everything else is for morons undeveloped, which it is necessary to sit, how to breathe and so on. But for a knowledgeable person the thought of "I am Brahman..." and so on - there's a whole series there when he thinks: I am that-that-that - is breath; when he thinks that the fact, there is an exhalation: "I am", stops breathing. State civella or nodding - state without breathing. That's what he calls the actual pranayama. About the rest of the other pranayama he says this is so for the ignorant people, stupid. In a sense he's right.
So, here the same situation: to realize, to even look in the direction of the beholder, is something beyond thought, beyond time. You just throw it away. Here, it is implied.
Student: But this is possible only when the illusion cleared, or what?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, the question then arises. And why bother to do anything if nothing is achieved? Yes? Well, technically.
I have already answered this question. As in ancient treatises said, in my opinion, in the Upanishads, it is impossible Purusha, the Atman to know no yoga, no meditation, no prayer, no mantra, no reading books, no visits to Holy places, nor by charity, nor by worship of ancestors, nor even one million twenty-five thousand of all virtues that exist. None of these virtues is impossible to understand, to know the Purusha, it is impossible to know the Atman, it is impossible to know its own self. Impossible!
The question then is: how is possible to see the Atman? The answer is: the Atman can only see those who are the self shows itself. That is, if he'll show you, you will see him. And if you do not show any of these steps, you will never see him again. Not even close to it. In the sense that it's not such activity: made two times more practice - twice as hard saw. Nothing of the sort. But if you're doing these practices, if you do charity work, do yoga, TEM-SEM-fifth-tenth, then the probability that the Atman you will show increases. You know?
Here there is a very subtle moment of something elusive, and I sometimes call it "antichristian". You know, we have all built in this world for money. You have to pay for the music – the music is playing. And here is a boundary of purity. Comes some businessman who's read a book on yoga, and says: "Guys, it's so cool to fly through the air and walk through walls, and read minds competition! And then to see your own Atman. Here I will now lay out a certain, unspecified, amount of bucks, but that with a guarantee!". You know? "To be sure this is all I saw, felt and knew". And what to say to him? He can say: "goodbye, dear. There are no guarantees". Maybe to walk through walls you will learn. To read the minds of competitors you'll learn. Fly through the air you will too. But in order to know the Atman will not help. That is, it is impossible to buy. It is impossible to buy in principle. It is impossible to bribe the Atma. Anything you can buy. You can buy a whole library of yoga, right? You can hire the whole Institute any professors who you will all roseexplained, you have to learn and so on and so forth. But this does not guarantee that you will know his "I", the Purusha. Because you have this intermediate, if you will, a desert of purity. He wants you to think he will. Don't want to...
Student: is it a spontaneous process?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: you Know, the same thing that the Lord God trying to get something done.
Student: the Probability just increases if you...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: If you do so, then he you may be will pay attention.
Student: if you don't?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: if you don't, then, of course, the chances are, hmm, are drastically reduced.
Student: this is just a question of plane ...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: exactly! As of the plane to go up. When we go in the plane, we did not acquire any quality that would allow us to fly up.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: But it is not necessary to purchase it we already have. We should just walk by this plane, to realize that it is the quality there. Walking in the plane to us at some point (if we are certain circles to cut) will allow us to understand that the ability to fly. And at that time, when we know it, disappears when ignorance, we will immediately prosvetleniya leave. There are no real obstacles that must be overcome. They are not! Went on.
25. The deliverance is the lack of connection because of the lack [of ignorance]; it is the absolute isolation of the Seer.
Review of Vyasa: a Lack of connection between buddhi and Purusha, [that is] the final elimination of the shackles, has its cause in the absence of ignorance, - this is the meaning [of the sutras]. This deliverance is absolute isolation of the Seer, that is, the existence of Purusha in the unmixed condition, [when he] no longer connected with the modes.
At the termination [of action] the cause of suffering comes the cessation of suffering, that is, deliverance. Then the Purusha abides in its own form - so said.
What is the means of achieving [the] deliverance?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: read it again.
Student: "Freedom is the absence of connections due to the lack of ignorance. This is the absolute isolation of the Seer."
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: We have on this subject many times. Again.
What is liberation, what is deliverance? What is the way out of the plane up? Yes, this is precisely the moment when consciousness instead look at buddhi, and buddhi savetodatabase with stops to look at him. And begins to look at Purusha or absorbed by the same Purusha.
And as soon as this occurs, first, the external world disappears for individual yoga. Is a single win. That is, in this sense, the yogi can't... for him, the game is over. Ended Universe. He conquered the Universe. He came out of this game victorious. For others it may be ongoing. But he also reaches beyond the limits of time, so there's even a question of time: "how long" or "how soon" –immediately disappears.
All: as soon as the consciousness ceases to Shine upon buddhi, on our mind, and begin to Shine in our "I" - rastorgaetsya. In this moment comes, the release. Not before. If you have the slightest reference to the buddhi, then the whole outside world disappears. The then final liberation no.
Student: This is called "Samadhi" when the mind suddenly shines on itself, the "I" itself, understood in its entirety? That is, Samadhi is a deep state of concentration?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: the fact that the concept of "Samadhi" has a slightly different color.
Samadhi is concentration. And Samadhi is optional, when they say that the yogi "sits in Samadhi", "gone into Samadhi," that is not necessarily so that now the rays of his consciousness focused on his Purusha. This means only one thing: the rays of his mind focused on something in a very, very large extent. And if at this point in buddhi yoga this is a thought – one (there were a million thoughts, like waves on a lake; when the ordinary lives people live, more or less, he has a million any thoughts). But this yogi sat down and focused, and these waves disappeared, and were, say, one big wave. Here the yogi is in Samadhi. But that would be Samadhi. He focused on this big wave, on a single, very serious, for example, thought. And they say that the yogi is in Samadhi, but Samadhi with the quality of the so - called "Saguna".
Student: It with quality. And if no quality?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: If without qualities, it is "Nirguna". And without quality - it's all about: when he went to the side of the "I".
Student: Then this is what is called Nirvikalpa-Samadhi, Nirguna-Samadhi?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Saguna and Nirguna... When is the last this idea (as they say here in these texts), it is primarily attributed to Ishvara, that is, as an object for meditation acts as Ishvara, or, simply, God. And when focusing on It, on Ishvara with qualities, this Saguna.
But if focusing on It as the original point to the original, that is what we call "Fact", it is Nirguna.
But this is equivalent to the same. Nirguna – when our consciousness is absorbed by our Purusha. There is no difference. In this sense there is no difference, if you have merged with the absolute or you know its own self. Here such here logic.
Student: Then, when people can get out of this state of Samadhi, he is still exempt?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. After this is called "jivanmukti". That is, the person who is liberated while alive.
Already has no effect on the external world, or what?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: No, there's a very interesting situation. Logically it is explained like this: people, burns all the seeds of karma, but karma is unfolding, it seems to be played through. The man returned to the same body, same conditions and see out this karma, which was deployed until the moment when he fell into Samadhi.
Disciple: But does the new more?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: He ceases to make further karma, and, moreover, all the previous seeds, which were in him, and waited for the moment, all burned. Therefore, the person continues to live, waiting for his body (and we remember that the body is just our karma) itself does not become obsolete. As soon as she (karma body) itself become obsolete, the body with this soul just drops like old rags, old clothes, and at this point no absolutely no shapochek to this world. As a rule, at the time of death a yogi finally prosmatrivaetsya.
That's why sometimes when you read about prominent religious leaders in India do not write that so-and-so Swami died. It really is considered bad manners. Because he's an ordinary man just to take and to glue the fins? Oak punch? Yes? No! Usually write the following sentence: he went to who. The implication was that the karma he had burned, and the body was just waiting for the moment of death that this person finally came in, and who never returned to this world. So he just waited for the moment of death. He didn't want to spoil the celebration of life to all others, waited until the party was over, and quietly left, not slamming the door, so to speak. But again, this is optional. Some lives go, and who do not return from it. To the outside observer, this is equivalent to what the person just died.
However, here is also a curious moment. Somehow he died, maybe he died, but some unusual events sometimes occur. For example, his body, maybe almost half a year do not decompose. In General, a million different svetoprestavlenie can accompany this phenomenon. It is difficult for us to judge. But the point is that a person reaches a state where more grains there is no karma and new karma, it is in principle not produce. What is karma? This causes the future of conditionality. But once he saw himself, he was already burning conditionality once and for all, there is only what's already been deployed, and waiting for some time to rid myself...
You know, sometimes during the war, I watched the film, going dark German tank and in him somebody from the cannon – boom! – the tank exploded, have been destroyed, but continues by inertia even twenty meters to go, then stops, drops his gun, the smoke goes, and the poor Germans, who miraculously survived, quickly run away from the tower before it exploded. That's about the same and here's the situation: all karma has no karma destroyed, and it is only the inertia of some kind takes place, the movement still goes on, to then finally stop. That is the meaning.
Student: I know what else I wanted to ask... When a person goes into this state, how does that happen then turn to the saints and they somehow meet? Man achieves this state of absolute points. And as that happens, then what it is possible to contact?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: to Communicate, Yes. But see, they reach a state of super-abilities. They reach a status equal to the status of God. They actually have nothing, by and large, do not differ from Him, that is, they suddenly remember that they always been God. But each of them got a path to this state. And if at the beginning of the path yelling, you are more personified way to address to the Lord God, you know?
If we consider Holy, which finally prosvetlilsia, such as Ramakrishna, I am more than convinced that it was God. No more, no less. Although it may sound absolutely shocking for the modern man, right? So, he came into this world in some form, and he left, but left behind a trail, a path. And if this path to go, it is easier to get to God, if you will. To shout in this way. Even if any great Saint and have not reached the absolute dissolution of God, but climbed to a very close degree is it, perhaps, for our minds do not understand, he still leaves a trail. And, turning to him, we immediately get the answer.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because, of course, the person who rose to spiritual development, it is, by definition, all and always. This by definition. It cannot be otherwise. Another thing is that there is such a law. They're all unobtrusive. Until then, until you decide to contact you while you're inside will not form... give this, if you request, it won't get its some obsessive moralizing. Here in person. Because you, by and large, it is no different. You are the same Gentlemen God. But you some time decided to fool around in this world, and he will not interfere with your game. Why? If you're God, but really, alausi fool. However, if your game will include a time to turn to this Saint, then, Yes. You know? Will here determines. Otherwise, it will be imposing.
Student: That is his way, his life, his any examples of life, are the channel through which you can reach, right?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, of course. As the trail. Here people went to the mountains in the snow, and the traces left. This trail can be reached. Let's go further!
26. Remedy unshakable discriminating attainment.
Review of Vyasa: Discerning comprehension 1 knowledge (fundamental] differences of sattva and Purusha. However, this [attainment] is unstable, if the false knowledge is not resolved. When false knowledge [is reduced] to a state burnt to heat seed 2, is no longer able to bear fruit, while the flow of discerning the contents of consciousness belonging to sattva, which got rid of the rajas of affects and dwells in the highest state of clarity and awareness of the rule becomes clear. This distinguishes between attainment, being unshakable, is the means of deliverance. Thanks to him about knowledge comes in the calcined condition on the fire seed, that is, it is no longer able to bear fruit.
Thus, this means of deliverance is the path of liberation.
Student: "Remedy unshakable discerning comprehension".
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: so we continue this theme. The question is, how do we get rid of, how are we able to disengage or to separate from our buddhi, our intellect? How can we reach a state of freedom? And I here want to emphasize, I love this way to emphasize that this knowledge has moved from a topic of academic knowledge...
You know, there's academic knowledge. You have a treatise. There are some common dry logical conclusions. And now, someone something there proves that brings. I don't really like it, because I believe that it should be tied to life. But here, too, the same question. Here we are with you live, go to work, do something, something do not. We're due. We're not free. If we feed, we are happy and satisfied. If you do not feed, we already feel disharmony. That is, we are dependent on certain external conditions. And if these conditions are any one series, we are happy and joyful, if another series, we are unhappy because we suffer. That is, we are slaves.
By and large, we are slaves. But sooner or later we begin to practice yoga, and some very crude negative karma quickly burn. That is the fact that now a good part of the population of Russia is forced to go to work and earn money to live on, otherwise we all would be starving were dead, - this is some rough karma. She keeps everyone in check, it makes all run. But sooner or later the rude karma go, and it will go faster than we think. This is maybe the most paradoxical conclusion. It will happen, barring any global cataclysm. Because sometimes life gives us surprises before the cataclysms, such as before the First world war, when everything was going up-up-up-up and then a great mind of the imperialists unleashed the First world war - and, in General, have fallen.
So sooner or later one fine morning, the average Russian suddenly realize that his life has been less dependent on daily work, and is it mostly left to himself. Will appear here is a small sense of freedom. More precisely, not "small". Now this person maybe thinks of as the ultimate dream that he had "a lot of money, flat so the Bahamas Villa and had worked only when I want. And it is better not to work". Yes? Because we have the same psychology as what? Watch and listen: all jokes, all thoughts - all aimed at a single theme: I work, I get sick. How would I make it so that I wouldn't be working?
Generally speaking, the formulation of the question indicates a slave psychology.
Disciple: In what sense?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: In the sense that the people who say so, dependent slaves. And they don't understand anything at all. They believe that work is the punishment that the work is a kind of a curse that have to go. But if you're not going to go, then a million will immediately be negative consequences.
Yes, indeed, it is for people with very negative karma, with which we are in the majority here in this country, are, it is really a overseer's whip. Because otherwise we all would have sunk to a bestial state. But, on the other hand, work is the highest good, the greatest pleasure and the ultimate meaning of existence. That is, had not yet tasted of this freedom, the average person, as if he spat on her. But go ahead...
So very soon all will get rid of such can be rough conditions, will not have to fight for life, for a place under the sun. But it will be some more thin, thin, thin contributing factors that then come to the fore. That is, while all will begin to do some artwork, well, what is called the finer things. In fact, this lack of freedom would then be manifested, but only on a more subtle level.
It will take some amount of time, and if during this period the freedom of the people is not decomposed... it is freedom when you don't have to do anything, is a doubly sharp blade. It will either let you make a step in the direction of spirituality, because you don't have to be every day and sweat to earn a piece of bread. Or, conversely, you surrender to laziness and slide on the previous level. A typical example of this from history is the Roman Empire, which at one point reached prosperity, and lazy all at once. Well, there are barbarians and covered. But if it's jumped, then the last condition is the condition, indeed, very subtle karma, when the mind and the body and the senses will be absolutely sattva. It will be clean, all people will be angels with wings, will be interested in spiritual knowledge, will be clear to see all the problems. But then she would be free.
From our point of view, with our current level, it will be a life of heaven: all the advanced, enlightened, everything, understand everything, but still people will be determined. As long as there is a connection identification of the Purusha with the buddhi, as long the person is not free. As the saying goes, it will still be shackled if they are made of iron or gold inlaid with diamonds, shining and shimmering in the light. When these shackles are made of iron, we curse them. We go to work or we feel bad. When these shackles are made of fine materials, on the contrary, we are proud of them, "Here, look what I have shackles!" But from the point of view of yoga, from the point of view of the absolute release any shackles – that's not freedom.
Freedom begins only in the moment when we really rabotodatelyam with buddhi.
Student: How does this happen, how can we do it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: we can Do this, as it suggests in the aphorism of Patanjali, the practice of differences. The difference here is understood in every sense of the word, but in the first place, the distinction between Purusha, between our "I" and buddhi.
And here Vyasa as the limiting case to consider: Yes, when we bad, we bad life, we need to strive able to disengage with buddhi and taste the happiness which is our "I" in our Purusha. There is a whip. But let's say the situation is very extreme. When a person is lots and lots and lots of lives doing yoga, or doing good deeds, appears in all sattva, that is, in the mode (guna, that is a form of manifestation of the external Universe, if you will). The universe appears in its pure, clear, positive sense, but even in this case, we should be able to disengage with the buddhi. If by buddhi held thoughts, painted in Tamas, inertia, rajas or activity, even after becoming a yogi, from whom all thoughts of sattva solid solid solid clarity and wisdom, even in this case, we should be able to disengage with our buddhi, which became sattva.
However, there is still another way of explanation. After all, our own buddhi, the mind, by nature, by definition, made from the purest sattva matter. By definition. That is, buddhi – this is the body or the tool that was made from the purest of matter. There is by definition no impurities of rajas or of Tamas, otherwise if this were not the buddhi. If there was an admixture of rajas, it was more of the senses. If it was the impurity of Tamas, then it would likely gross inert matter. Buddhi is made of sattva. And separation from it of sattva, very attractive image, should be done anyway. Up to this point is not reached enlightenment. More precisely, not to enlightenment, no, and the final release.
It is in this context, there is a saying: first the yogi burns up the negative karma, and then also burns and positive karma.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, because to be free, you have to come out at all from the field of action of conditioning, and it irons on, they are in this sense equivalent to the fetters made of gold.
Or another saying: in the same way, if we got splinters, we take another thorn, take out the first and then throw away both. Similarly, we neutralize the positive karma, negative karma, and then throw away all karma, positive or negative. And only in that moment we become free.
Student: How do you do it again?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: the Question of differences... But see here's the difference between Purusha and sattva, between Purusha and buddhi... How to make this distinction? To approach this distinction, we must first develop the ability to distinguish within buddhi.
Here we have the ocean of buddhi, which actually happens all that we see as the world. We first learn the ability to distinguish between inside buddhi, and not to talk so very intellectual, just a normal real everyday life. Here comes to us the situation of some, one or the other, and we analyze it. We recognize why it's an event. And we try to see not in some narrow sense, and broader. We start to analyze things, we begin not in one fell swoop to eat, and to see that was the reason why.
Student: so to see the chain of cause and effect?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. What is true and what is false. After all, we are similar, I don't know... wild animals who dig up roots and eat the roots along with the dirt, which they plastered. Everything eaten. And here we must come to this feeling of separation. That would be with us whatever happens, we have some illusions, as wherever they appear, cut away. Here public opinion. If public opinion is wrong, but enforced, we have to cut off: "No, guys, sorry, it's your imagination". Discuss cloning. Listen - just bredyatina specific. It is believed that if you reproduce the set of atoms of the body of Einstein, you get Einstein, you know?
Student: Or Jesus Christ.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Or Jesus Christ. The body is made of cells, cells from molecules, molecules from atoms. By and large, if we make a genetic copy in some approximation, of course, not a single one is good we make an exact copy of these atoms. Here is one copy of the atoms, but it is the second. And, you know, some stupidity it is believed that everything else will be exactly the same. How's it going? Of not discriminating! It is believed that man is a collection of molecules. But his mind, his "I", if you will, the soul just derivatives of these molecules. It's confusing, but we find ourselves in a field of activity different kinds of such misconceptions.
Again, by and large, the essential difference between our "I" and even the most, how would you say this... the thinnest, the most attractive quality in this Universe. We are able to develop compassion, forgiveness, million twenty five thousand great qualities - those qualities that everyone will be just excited. Yes, we are going to amaze myself. And rightly so, as it should be, this is the meaning of evolution. But even when we become angels with wings, we have to remember that all these qualities do not belong to the nature of our "I". It's just the clothes, very beautiful, very attractive and blessed in this world. In this world having a outfit, you become the master of this world. You do whatever you want in this world. But there are again limitations in this world.
Here we must distinguish between: by and large, reaching a very high status, it is still to our self, to our Purusha is irrelevant. And the difference even in this. It leads to liberation. That is, we don't even buy it, you know? Went on.
27. His wisdom is the ultimate level 1 - the seven species.
Review of Vyasa: [Word] "it" replace [expression] "that [the yogin] who had [distinguishing] comprehension". "The seven species" means that the wisdom of distinguishing, after the removal of dirt, unclean forming the cover 2, the other contents of consciousness no longer arises, becomes a septenary, [i.e. the following] seven signs.
1. Poznan [all] that should be removed; in him there is nothing left that needs to be known.
2. Reasons that have to be tackled [completely] destroyed; in them there is nothing left that must be destroyed.
3. Deliverance is perceived directly in yogic concentration [referred to as] the cessation [stream of consciousness].
4. Remedy in the form of discriminating comprehension became the object [continuous] cultivation. This is chetyrehvalkovoj exemption from the consequences due to the wisdom. With regard to the liberation of consciousness, it is of three types.
5. Buddhi has completed its function.
6. The mode, as if deprived of the stability of stones falling from the top of the mountain aspire to the dissolution of its cause and disappear together with it [consciousness]. And when these modes completely dissolved, they do not arise again, because [it] has no application.
7. In this state the Purusha out of the connection with the modes, [dwells] in the radiance of only his own essence, uncontaminated and completely free.
Thus, Purusha, reflecting the seven types of wisdom, the ultimate level is defined as "skilled" (wise). He remains released and "artful" even if the manifestation of consciousness 3 because it is outside the [areas of activity] modes.
Distinguishing attainment becomes a means of disposal [when it is] implemented. In addition to the implementation of no [other] way [of implementation]. So [next] says:
27. His wisdom is the ultimate level 1 - the seven species.
Review of Vyasa: [Word] "it" replace [expression] "that [the yogin] who had [distinguishing] comprehension". "The seven species" means that the wisdom of distinguishing, after the removal of dirt, unclean forming the cover 2, the other contents of consciousness no longer arises, becomes a septenary, [i.e. the following] seven signs. 1. Poznan [all] that should be removed; in him there is nothing left that needs to be known. 2. Reasons that have to be tackled [completely] destroyed; in them there is nothing left that must be destroyed. 3. Deliverance is perceived directly in yogic concentration [referred to as] the cessation [stream of consciousness]. 4. Remedy in the form of discriminating comprehension became the object [continuous] cultivation. This is chetyrehvalkovoj exemption from the consequences due to the wisdom. With regard to the liberation of consciousness, it is of three types. 5. Buddhi has completed its function. 6. The mode, as if deprived of the stability of stones falling from the top of the mountain aspire to the dissolution of its cause and disappear together with it [consciousness]. And when these modes completely dissolved, they do not arise again, because [it] has no application. 7. In this state the Purusha out of the connection with the modes, [dwells] in the radiance of only his own essence, uncontaminated and completely free. Thus, Purusha, reflecting the seven types of wisdom, the ultimate level is defined as "skilled" (wise). He remains released and "artful" even if the manifestation of consciousness 3 because it is outside the [areas of activity] modes.Distinguishing attainment becomes a means of disposal [when it is] implemented. In addition to the implementation of no [other] way [of implementation]. So [next] says:
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: once you read this aphorism.
Student: "His wisdom is the ultimate level of seven species".
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: aphorism we talked about the distinction only by means of discernment. What is the distinction? This separation of one from another. One from the other we separate. Well, in context, is more to yoga applied, separated our selves from what our "I" is not. From the mind. But in practice, when we go this way, then that before or after that occurs, something that Patanjali referred to as the sevenfold wisdom. It is certain of the quality of the human "I" in relation to the human being.
A man, of course, at a certain stage distinguishes all that has obscured it. Because we are, in fact, all ordinary people, are a rather curious sight. We are like an iceberg. Is, the surface of the iceberg, a small area protrudes above the water surface. It is our consciousness. That is, we think, we go to work, we hatched some plans, we build something there, some kind of work in General, something we do. And we think that we know everything about life. Moreover, sometimes we think that we are life painted almost until his death. But we use only this tip of the iceberg of.
However, the tip of the iceberg cannot exist without the underwater part of the iceberg. But the underwater part of the iceberg – it's some other kind of unconscious thoughts, attitudes, stereotypes that slip from us, and we are not aware of this report. In a natural way. We are even there and not look. It seems to us that there is nothing to watch: here we are, on the surface.
So, when a person begins to practice yoga, he begins to allocate these underwater part of the iceberg when he sees that, before taking any decision (for example, "want a career", "I want to be a Minister", "CEO", "oligarch want to be"). And that raises this thought above the surface and the path of achievements over the surface. And the reason why you think this is good - this came from somewhere under the water. And more deep, detailed study of motivation... Why is she here? Well, really good to be an oligarch? Why do we believe that to be a tycoon well? Why we think it is, so to speak, a blessing? For example, I with it do not agree.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because the oligarch, first, with him on the light won't run off with your money. If some of them thinks that he will be able to extend the life with money, then Yes, he will be able to extend life, but sooner or later, all who are born must die. We have somewhere in the subconscious revolve such underlying unconscious thought. Unconscious motivation why? Because we have not analyzed. They tell us with mother's milk or something, passed. As there is now vulgar expression "to live on concepts". There are concepts, no one knows, really no one could not formulate, but it is as such a field, as a base, right? Everyone understands: "Yes, Yes, by the rules." Now, if you do something, you will, as they say, either contradict this, or not. But everyone understands what it's concept, but even to formulate them. This is the underwater part of the iceberg. Why "on concepts"? Who understands them? Where did they come from?
And in the process of yoga begins a series, the change of these conditions. Wisdom is undergoing a seven gradations. Starting with the fact that a person begins to understand what, exactly, is the cause of his freedom. This is the first look at this hidden part of the iceberg. Well, all of the following...
He begins to understand a method, it begins to apply this method. Then he realizes that everything that should have been done already... Well, that's how you read now and up to the penultimate state when he sooner or later reaches this state of disintegration, disconnection with the buddhi. And, here again, it is said, with the unconscious, and we rather call the superconscious - the concentration of our consciousness on our "I". And that's all. Then, if the person still returns and leads a normal lifestyle, then this is a different person.
Here always ask: well, people have prosvetlilsia, and what he does next, I wonder?
Student: what next?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Next? Let's say, such and such a person has prosvetlilsia, and then began to live life like normal, no different. I like these stories from the lives of tantric saints edge type Sarakata and other or the same founder Tilopa in this entire school. He was a very enlightened master, he, to use our own terms from the yoga of Patanjali, the person who's been consumed with "I". He was absolutely free. However, he continued to live a man's life, and, outwardly, his neighbours said he was living in poverty. In General, wondered that: how it could be?
We can not understand which way it will choose Holy for that in the future, after the main task of his entire evolution is made. Even if he lives and performs some functions, which seem quite unattractive, we can not say anything, because it's -- you Know, every movement, every action is like the action of God. Without karma. Although it looks like a normal, although it looks like an ordinary man, no different to t other, of course, if he does not want to show any powers. But all feel for him this wisdom – the wisdom of man, if you will, is not of this world. The wisdom of the man outside.
Again, we understand that the word "wisdom" refers only to our world, and even this sevenfold wisdom – all that can manifest in this world. When a person is absorbed in his own "I," or, as the Buddhists when he realizes the voidness of "I", because the word "voidness of self"...
Student: Emptiness is the nature of the mind?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Well, um... There are different options, there are different lyrics, I don't know the translation was so or... well, it doesn't matter. Actually here it is already unimportant. He realizes suddenly beccaccino. And bezkontrolnosti has Purusha.
When you say that Buddhists are nihilists, I said, "Guys, you simply do not understand Buddhism." But this man, gradually climb these steps, finds the seven types of wisdom. He remains in this world or not – it is distinguished by the presence of this wisdom. Here's what I wanted to say...
Student: And this man is the underwater part of the iceberg just doesn't see?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Exactly. Here is a good comparison, well done! A very good comparison.
Imagine that Tilopa is a miracle now: the top of the iceberg, cleaned the entire bottom, and upper left. Know, visibility is the same - swim to the tip of the iceberg, but unlike the average person, which many who have underwater part, he doesn't have it. Just no. Here in this plan miracle. Man lives a wonderful life, although everything looks quite as usual.
Student: And nothing below it there is not...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: exactly, nothing can get it out. Nothing can make him do, so to speak, the manifestation of these here Hun, clouding it as it is - anything just has no power. Don't even know what comparison to make to describe. Even with all the attempts to do something, just do not have neither the strength nor... He's already in another world. It's already out. Whichever situation he faced, he stands firmly on the Foundation of the out of this world.
Until then, at least a little while we identify with buddhi, we are in this world, and we can knock the Foundation soil, you know? Some intricacies. This often happened and still happen. It would seem, the person begins to engage-to engage-to do something, and here - again! – some set of circumstances, and a person feels: Oh! Damn it! Something under the legs staggered!
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This will always happen until we have at least one finger rested in the buddhi, the conditionality of this world.
But for such people there is no point on which they could rely on in this world, because they rely on their own "I". And nothing can affect them. Absolutely nothing can. You basically will not come up with any combination to bring balance Tilopa. Mean just, you know, sometimes people say: "pose as a Saint. Come on now, we dig". Yes? "But if so? But if that way?" Some of the Maharajah, the Foundation will immediately knock out legs, and then you basically can not bring him out of balance, because you have nothing to catch. He as fog passes through my fingers, and nothing remains.
The commentary to the aphorisms 14-27 Chapter II, "the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali"
15.1. In the Sanskrit text muhyati.
15.2. Ksipraparinaml. According to Vācaspati Miśra, this statement belongs to Panchasika. Cm. also [Woods, 1914, p. 134, note. I].
15.3. In the Sanskrit text gunapradhdnabhdvakrta.
15.4. In the Sanskrit text samsdrah samsdrahet urmokso moksopdya eveti. These four parts are sastra, i.e. the teachings of the Sankhya-yoga, typologically correspond to the "four noble truths" of Buddhism, but with the difference that here the section about samsara as if konkretisiert "truth of suffering" (duhkhasatya). Since almost the entire commentary of Vyasa [YS P. 15] also refers to consideration of the doctrinal concepts of duhkha, in comparative terms, it is appropriate to at least briefly touch on this Central ideology of Buddhism.
Duffkha — a fundamental concept obschebuddiysky doctrine — usually in Buddhist literature is interpreted as suffering or inadequacy profane existence. For clearer understanding of religious and ideological value of this concept and its special logical-discursive interpretation, one should keep in mind the following.
In doctrine the notion of "duhkha" is Central to the doctrine of "four noble truths". This is a basic characteristic of samsaric existence, i.e. existence, confined to egocentricity (upadana), for egocentricity creates thirst (trishna) to test sensory experience (bhava). But individual existence is characterized by impermanence, and that happiness (Sukha) carries within itself the germ of its opposite. Because the empirical individual has no means to counter this variability, its subjectivity is purely nominal, and in fact he is in a state of proterivanja, which is duhkha. Consequently, the doctrinal concept of "duhkha" in no way can be considered as the opposition Sukha (happiness): the latter is a particular fixation of the fact of psychological life of the individual, but the this fact lies at the limits of duhkha as a very broad philosophical principle.
Because of this, the content of this notion cannot be reduced to a purely psychological characteristics such as emotional tone, etc. It is not an individual content with your life, but the fundamental inadequacy of empirical existence, the awareness of which is the first step towards the realization of Buddhist religious pragmatists.
Logical-discursive interpretation of duhkha describes in the first section of "Encyclopedia of Abhidharma" through the concept of causal Dharmas (samskrta) affects the flow of affectivity. Vasubandhu defines these as Dharma duḥkha, "because they are unacceptable to the saints." This instruction connects the logical-discursive concept of "Sanskrit" with the doctrinal level of Buddhism, but since "saints" (Agua) — those who have neutralized individual egocentric-bathroom installation using the "noble eightfold path", stopped the flow of causal Dharmas, so far as the consciousness of the saints are not exposed to the duḥkha as a fundamental factor of samsaric existence.
Such an interpretation of this notion, evidence in favor of that suffering as the term Judeo-Christian religious traditions can be used to transmit the Buddhist concept of "duhkha" is largely arbitrary. Suffering in old Testament interpretation was conceptualized as a divine punishment for sins, as a sign of abandonment by God. New Testament interpretation sees in it the guarantee of salvation that gave rise to the medieval Christian mystics to see in suffering a sign of God's love for man. Therefore, suffering in the Judeo-Christian religious tradition plays a typologically different functional role than duhkha in Buddhist or Brahmanical.
15.5. In the Sanskrit text pradhanapurusayoh samyogo heyahetu (for a reason that should get rid of, the connection of the puruṣa and pradhāna — purposesnot). CP. [YS II - 17], which refers to the Pradhan in the aspect of its evolution as drsya, i.e. as an object of vision for the Purusha.
15.6. Hdtuh. This refers to Purusha.
15.7. In the Sanskrit text hane tasyocchedavadaprasangah upadane ca hetuvadah. The doctrine of annihilation (ucchedavada) is one of the doctrines (drsti) that are widespread in the period of the codification of the Buddhist canonical corpus ("tri PI Taka"). Wed, for example, the statement attributed to the Buddha in the "Sutra-pitak":
"To say that everything exists (bhavadrsti-SaSvata) is one extreme; to say that everything does not exist (vibhavadrsti-u C cheda) is the other extreme. Avoiding extremes, Blessed (Bhagavan) preaches a middle ground" (SN II, p. 17].
The Sarvastivada (doctrine that Dharma, i.e., qualitatively defined state of consciousness, exist in all three forms of time: past, present and future) is the leading school of early Buddhism, from the II century ad also known as hetuvada (study of causality).
Vyasa finds, therefore, a good knowledge of synchronous Nepomniaschy him religious and philosophical systems.
16.1. "[Suffering].. already acts as a content of experience (bhogarudham)". Have in mind that since the passive condition is the result of previous activities (karmavipaka), it cannot be eliminated until exhaustion of energy investigation.
16.2. In the Sanskrit text pratipatfdram (pratipattr], a term more typical for the style of Shankara.
17.1. According to Patanjali, the empirical identification (in the terminology of "Yoga sutras" — samyoga, i.e. the relationship, or connection) Purose and objects of its experience (drsya) is the reason that should be eliminated in the process of psycho-technical practices.
17.2. In the Sanskrit text drastd (names, case numbers from units drastr) — "one who sees" is one of the epithets of the Purusha.
17.3. According to the ontological concept of Sankhya-yoga, Purusha is closely linked with buddhi (mind in the aspect of the discrete media content of consciousness), and through it, indirectly, with other products of the evolution of the Prakrit". Vijnana Bhikshu notes in this regard that the Purusha is "suicidal" (saksi, observer) States of the buddhi, without anything intervening between them, and through buddhi it — "the Spectator" (drasta) of everything else. In other words, the free and inactive Purusha becomes the "observer" only if the connection with buddhi (see [SPS VI. 50] and also [Radhakrishnan, 1931, vol. P, p. 292]). This explains the statement of Patanjali: such a relationship is the reason that should be eliminated (heya),
17.4. In the Sanskrit text of buddhisattva — "sattva", i.e., "enlightening", the essence of buddhi, which is reflected in the puruṣa. "Due to the transparency practice of Reethi in its sattva component is reflected in her Purusha mistakenly thinks that the individuation and the activities of Prakriti as belonging to him. However, this misconception is rooted only in the Purusha as reflected in Prakriti, but not in it as such: even fixed the moon reflected in water appears moving due to the movement of water." Cm. [SPS VI. 59].
17.5. Vācaspati miśra, commenting on this phrase in "Tattva-visharada" says: "[the Author] addresses may arise in this regard doubts by saying, "...having no beginning and serving as a [specific] purpose (arthakrta) connection (connection) the two — subject vision (drs) and the ability or power vision (dasanasakti)..." And indeed, this relationship is not natural (PA svabhavikah), but only random (naimittikah). However, one should not assume that it has a beginning (adiman) because it is the manifestation of the cause (nimitta), having no beginning in time, it is also beginningless. Further, continuous deployment (santana) affects and actions and contributing potentsialzavisimyh traces (vasana) has no beginning. Although in each period of involution of the universe (pratisarga) [flow] returns to the state of equilibrium (samya is) in the first cause (pradhana), at the beginning of the new creation (sargadau) it occurs again" [TV P. 17, C. 82]. About the meaning of the term pratisarga for details, see Biardeau, 1968, p. 20 and ate.].
17.6. In the Sanskrit text ksetrajna; here, apparently, the value of the individual Purusha. As writes S. Dasgupta in the section "Sankhya Philosophy in the Bhagavad Gita" his "History of Indian philosophy", "it should be noted that ksetra (the field) is a term specially reserved to denote the complex of body and mind (namarupa Ms. in Buddhism) with the exception of the life principle "I", which is called ksetra-jna, i.e. the knower of the field, or ksetrin having ksetra, i.e. psychophysical complex. It is said that just as the sun illuminates this whole world, and ksetrin illuminate the whole ksetra". While Dasgupta refers to the Bhagavad-Gita, XIII. 34. Cm. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. II, p. 464].
However, it must be noted that in the context of presentation of the ideas of the Sankhya system Charaki the unmanifest aspect of Prakriti (avyakta) is identified with the Purusha. Vikara, the products of the evolution of prakrti, get the name of the ksetra (the field), while prakrti is unmanifest is considered as ksetrajna — the "knowing field". Thus, Charaka considers avyakta and animacy (cetana) to the same category. Cm. [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, p. 214].
17.7. CP. see also the commentary of Vyasa to I. 4: vrttisarupyamitaratra.
18.1. In the Sanskrit text prakdsakriyasthitisilam.
18.2. In the Sanskrit text pradhdnaveldydm. Vācaspati miśra explains: "When the generation of the divine body dominated by sattva, rajas and Tamas play a subordinate role. Similarly, when the generation of the human body (manusyasarire) is dominated by the rajas; sattva and Tamas — are in a subordinate position. When throwing the body of the animal (tiryaksarire) is dominated by Tamas; the other two modes play a subordinate role" [TV II. 18, p. 84].
18.3. In comments Vācaspati miśra said, "the semantic connection here is that these modes (fundamental components) are denoted (vacya) the word "Pradhana" or the root cause. Etymologically (vyutpattya) ["Pradhana"] is this thing that is created (pradhiyate), or is the whole world" [TV P. 18, p. 85].
18.4. It is interesting to note that Vyasa does not stop here for a detailed presentation shankhaiskoi the concept of transformation (parinama), apparently assuming it was fairly well-known (see [Radhakrishnan, 1931, p. 266, 277]). Vācaspati miśra in his comments confined to mention of the fact that Vyasa, "to introduce the doctrine of the preexistence of the effect in the cause (satkaryavada), says that it takes the form of development, which is determined by its essence (yadyadatmakam tattena rupena parinamate)". cm. [TV II. 18, p. 85].
18.5. In the Sanskrit text bhogapavargartham hi taddrsyam purusasya. And experience (bhoga) and liberation (apavarga, sankhyiki synonym rooksa) are "the purpose of the puruṣa" (purusartha).
18.6. Cm. in this regard, the review John. Woods [Woods, 1914, p. 145, note. I].
18.7. In the Sanskrit original here svdmini — the "master."
18.8. A brief definition of these concepts, introduced by Vyasa, is given in the commentary Vācaspati miśra: "Here cognition (grahana) is knowledge (jfiana) of the object as it exists in its own form (svarupamatrena); keeping in mind (dharana) — save the object [as it exists in its own form]; the ability of judgment, or analysis (IPA), — the allocation of specific (visesa) [in the object]; the negation (apoha) — the elimination of the substantive consideration (yukti) specific properties, falsely attributed (samaropita) [object]. The knowledge of the true nature (tattvajfiana) [object E.] the definition (avadharana—allocation) due to these two—the ability to analyze and denial. Lust for life, or pot life (abhinivesa) — the rejection or acceptance (hanopadana) [of the object], due to true knowledge" [TV II, 18, c.46]
19.1. In the Sutra visesdvisesalingamdtrdlingdni gunaparvani. According to S. Radhakrishnan, "the products of evolution (prakrti), which is able to produce other products, like themselves, are called non-specific (avisesa), while others are not able to generate entity like themselves. called all specific (visesa). When ahamkara (the principle of individuation; letters. "I division") produces tanmatra (lit. "only you"), we are not free to follow in the absence of the principle of individuation in the subtle elements. What arises from ahamkara, is a completely different entity, and that transforming is the case tattvantaraparinama. The senses and gross elements cannot bring to life a completely different kind of existence. Thus, ahamkara (the principle of individuation) is nonspecific, and feelings, etc. is highly specific (visesa)". Cm. [Radhakrishnan, 1931, p. 274].
19.2. According to the concept of Sankhya-yoga tanmatra (lit. "only you") is "subtle" (suksma) elements, corresponding to the five senses and represents an immediately preceding causes "rough" elements of akasha, wind, fire, water and earth. For details, see Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, pp. 251-254; Radhakrishnan, 1931, pp. 270-277].
19.3. In the Sanskrit text buddhlndriya. In the system of Sankhya, buddhi is the psychological aspect of Mahat, or mahasattva ("great being"), the initial product of the evolution of undifferentiated origin (prakrti or Pradhana). S. Radhakrishnan writes that, "like other products of prakrti, buddhi possesses the three Gunas. In the aspect of sattvic buddhi characteristic honor debt, freedom from desires and divine potency; in the aspect of rajas, it produces desire, and in the aspect of Tamas gives rise to neglect of duty, ignorance, etc." Cm. [Radhakrishnan, 1931, p. 267].
In the commentary of Vyasa buddhi acts as a synonym for citta — consciousness, or, more precisely, of the psyche, suggesting the possibility of different scans. Other synonyms buddhi — mati, khyati, jnana.
Details about citta in yoga psychology see [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 260 and ate.].
19.4. M a n a s — here the generalized ability of consciousness. The usual translation of this term adopted in the literature— "the organ of the mind."
19.5. In the Sanskrit text asmita, apparently as a synonym for ahamkara, i.e., the principle of individuation.
19.6. In the Sanskrit text vivrddhikdsthamanubhavanti. Another interpretation, see [Woods, 1914, p. 149].
19.7. In the Sanskrit text avyaktamalingam pradhdnam. Prakriti, regarding which there can be no other predetermine initial state, is called alinga, i.e. something that is not a sign of any other or more unspecified (avisesa) state. As noted by S. Dasgupta, "in a certain sense all emanations it is reasonable to call linga, or States of existence, projecting signs, on the basis of which can be directly inferred causes from which these emanations originated. So, five "coarse" (or "great") elements can be named linga "subtle" elements (tanmatra); those, in turn — linga of the principle of individuation (ahamkara), which serves as a linga, or sign the Mahat ("great being"), since all unspecified can be deduced from its specific (visesa) modifications". Cm. [Dasgupta, 1930. p. 179-180].
19.8. As already mentioned, the purpose of the puruṣa — experience (bhoga) and liberation (apavarga) ~ implemented through the "apparent" (drsya), i.e. products of the evolution of Prakriti [YS II. 18].
19.9. In the publication of Bodasa is given a different reading: ...na pratyastamayam tenopajayante. 19.10. In the Sanskrit text dharmalaksandvasthd parinama.
20.1. In the Sutra drsimdtra, which is explained by Vyasa as drksakti, i.e. the potential for vision (knowledge).
20.2. According to the epistemological concept of yoga, buddhi transformirovalsya in the form of a cognized object, but it is not taking shape of the object is unknown.
20.3. About the identification of the source (which again is cited in (YS IV. 22] ), see [Woods, 1914, p. 155, note. 2].
21.1. In the Sanskrit text pararupena — "as the other" (?).
22.1. According to Sankhya-yoga there are many kinds of Purushas (individual souls), which are shown in the relevant psycho-physical organism. Unlike Wednesday the concept of the individual souls (jiva), which is only an illusory manifestation of a world soul (brahman), or pure consciousness, Purusha Sankhya-yoga real and sapromyza (vibhu). In detail about the concept of Purusha in Sankhya-yoga, see [Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, pp. 238-241; Radhakrishnan, 1931, pp. 279-283].
"...The Purusha, who failed to convert [their] goal" — here Vyasa is referring to experience (bhoga) and liberation (apavarga). Cm. (YS II. 23].
23.1. In the Sanskrit text pratidvandvi.
23.2. Vācaspati miśra explains: "this kind of reasoning is applicable not only to the Pradhan (the root cause), but also to other imaginary (kalpitesu) reasons, the Supreme Brahman, his illusions (tanmaya), atoms (paramanu), etc. For all of them, if it existed only in the resting state (sthiti), also could be the cause, because it does not produce the change of form (vikara-karanat). If they would exist only in motion (gatyaiva), it also could be the reason for the change (i.e., the consequence) would be eternal." Cm. [TV II. 23, p. 95]. Vācaspati miśra here almost reproduces the commentary of Vyasa.
23.3. I.e. Purusha and Pradhana (the root causes).
23.4. In the Sanskrit text darsanajfidnameva, apparently, Vyasa has in mind abhidharmists point of view, according to which "view" (drsti or darsana) is a false point of view, which should be eliminated (heya). Cm. [AKV 1.40].
24.1. In the Sanskrit text viparyayajhdnavdsand, i.e. potenzialberatung footprint (impression) of the previous false knowledge.
24.2. In the Sanskrit text here updkhyanenodghdfayati.
24.3. In the Sanskrit text hdna "elimination", "deliverance",
26.1. Distinguishing attainment vivekakhydti; in the terminological sense is synonymous prajfia (wisdom). For details, see [AKV I. 2] and comment Yasho-miter.
26.2. In the Sanskrit text dagdhabijabhava, i.e. the state is not able to produce a result (bandhyaprasava).
27.1. In the Sutra here prdntabhumih. According to Vācaspati Miśra, refers to the yogi with the ability of discernment (pratyuditakhyateh) Cm. [TV P. 27, p. 99].
27.2. In the Sanskrit text asuddhyavaranamalapagama. "Mud, forming a unclean veil [of consciousness]"—a metaphor for the passions (klesa) that prevents the return of consciousness in the unperturbed state (Santa) when buddhi has completed its function (caritadhikara).
27.3. In the Sanskrit text pratiprasave'pi. According to the commentary, Vācaspati miśra, "at this stage, even while still alive (Jivanneva), puruṣa is called the good (kuSala — happy) and liberated (mukta), as is the physical body— last (caramadehatvat). Respectively [Vyasa] says: "Even if...", i.e., even when selling product of consciousness, when it is dissolved (laye) to the root cause". Cm. (TV II. 27. p. 100].
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