"Yoga Sutras" of Patanjali with commentaries b Vadim Zaporozhtsev. Chapter III, AF. 1-14
The title of the lecture:
"Yoga Sutras" Of Patanjali
Comments Vadim Zaporozhtseva
the text "Yoga Sutras" of Patanjali.
About advanced abilities.
Author: Vadim Zaporozhtsev
Date and place of lecture:
Cultural center "Enlightenment" in Moscow.
The main text of the lecture.
ABOUT ADVANCED ABILITIES.
Aphorisms from 1 to 14.
Five external components, [that is] means of implementation [of yoga], were considered [above. Now] it is necessary to consider the concentration.
1. Concentration is fixing the mind on [a certain] place.
Review of Vyasa: the Concentration is fixing the mind — by way of activities on the navel chakra, the Lotus heart, radiant [center] in the head, on the tip of the nose and on other similar places [on the body] or on external objects 1.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: read again the aphorism.
Student: "Concentration is fixing the mind on a particular place."
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Excellent! We begin to study the third Chapter of the four chapters of Patanjali's treatise on yoga. This, remember, is a classic treatise, and here immediately starts the explanation of what the concentration. To this end, we considered five, if you will, other steps that lead to concentration. Repeat: Yama, Niyama, asana, pranayama, and finally the fifth is the separation from the organs of perception, the separation of the mind from the senses.
Student: Pratyahara, right? The detachment?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Detachment, Yes. You use the Sanskrit names, I try to use both those, and others, for the simple reason that we used to.
Student: I will Explain what you're talking about with the separation of the mind from perception? What does it mean?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This means that we would pull his attention from the senses and from the senses.
And so, when these five training points made, according to the yoga of Patanjali, comes the next moment of concentration. Nothing interferes with our attention focused on any randomly chosen object. And this is a property of our consciousness to be focused on any one object, concentrated, similar to how the lens might gather into one spot all of its rays, similarly. This is called concentration.
Disciple: On what to focus on?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Concentrate on everything you wish yogi. It may be a matter of rough, may be thin, may be part of the body or any principle.
Student: What could be the principle?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes... the Law of gravity, for example... it's kind of logical and sensible thing, and if we all their thoughts will be collected in a single beam on this object...
Student: And how we can collect thoughts on this one object?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: sending out!
Here is a very clever hook: it is generally believed that the intelligence is the mind. And what is more the property of men, saying, not by chance, all scientists, etc . etc. the majority were men. But yoga makes one amendment, and Tantra yoga this amendment is sufficiently considered in detail: a property of the mind – to think, by themselves, thoughts are energy, and direct this energy can only be a guiding consciousness. And here we select any object and send his consciousness.
Student: What is happening?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: All unfolding thoughts will be devoted to the object on which consciousness is directed. As soon as the consciousness for a split second, distracted and jump to something else, all thoughts will also jump behind the consciousness to something else. Property of concentration - when we select an object, fix it consciousness and, therefore, on the thoughts that come, we track whether the purpose of consciousness to the object or it has made the jump.
Consciousness is something quite elusive, but the thought – things, if anything, quite tangible. That's why the ability to read minds or transmit thoughts at a distance is a fairly trivial task.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because there is a energy carrier, the energy, which exists objectively, just as there are, for example, a letter written by hand, or thrown a rock or a wave coming over the surface of the water. Exactly the same idea. Thought is energy in some form, and it is only necessary to learn to control it, leaving her to make the move. But by itself it is material.
Student: Well... the material in what way?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: thin, definitely.
But consciousness is immaterial. Consciousness is another feature of our "I" that cannot be grasp. And here, in order to determine that you have reached concentrations, that is, your mind focuses on a particular object, you check this by using thoughts, using energy. Well, and accordingly it is possible to move the opposite way: if you produce thoughts in one direction, select object – a circle! and constantly generate yourself these thoughts: "mug... mug... mug... green tea..." Then, if all our thoughts, is energy spinning around this object, then, as a consequence, the consciousness is directed only to that object. Here such here a paradigm, such a meaning here.
Disciple: they Say that the stronger the concentration, the more you can learn about the object...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. But I don't want more detail on this subject to speak.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because the following aphorisms just this issue. However, in brief my answer is this: if consciousness is directed to the object, that is, we are using energy, with a thought, sent to the consciousness, and when consciousness is directed to the object and concentrated, it in turn pulls other thoughts about this object, and the object as it shows itself to consciousness.
Student: What do you mean shows?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Time! and additional some information begins to flow in the form of sudden thoughts that you didn't even know. The ability of yoga: the yogi looks at an object and receives certain information which objectively he never knew. That is, the mind suddenly illuminates new information, and this information turns into a new idea.
Student: Why is that?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because we operate with the thoughts, that is, the energy of a certain vibration. And here it is not clear, the question here is chicken iaica what is the consciousness behind the energy or energy for consciousness. It's like a game of Leapfrog, where one jumps through another: consciousness-energy-consciousness-energy. And as a result, we are deepening our consciousness aiming at an object and get information that comes in the form of waves of thought energy. For Example: "Aha! This mug belonged to the great Saint, who said before his death that he who will drink tea from this mug, is enlightened in three days!"
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: nevertheless, it is.
Student: But this property is concentration is concentration of mind, the retention of the subtle energy in one place. This applies more to the mind, or more to the consciousness, or, as we have said, and then, to another?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: you See, in fact, this might is a subtle point... By and large, consciousness and energy are inseparable. This is very fine philosophy, very deep. But in some of the most brutality is the manifestation of the power of the "I" color consciousness, there is a sign with the color of energy. Just as we are all people, but among us there are men and women. Not to say that the man is the same as woman, but on the other hand, both the man and the woman is the people who belong to something common, unified, inseparable. There are no men without women, just in principle! And how would they then happened to light?! Similarly, no women without men.
But when we consider each separately, we take a group and say: here's a woman, she has such and such properties, it is sometimes bitchy, but generally speaking, gives life, and if it was not, in fact, the material universe was not developed would continue this principle. On the other hand here he's a man, sometimes he can be a smug fool, but nevertheless he has consciousness, and without it, there would be no principle of the reversal of the Universe. But this is Tantra.
But he went on! We will discuss this topic on the example of other aphorisms.
2. Contemplation (Dhyana) is the focus of the [uniform] States of consciousness in this [place].
Review Of Vyasa:
The focus 1 of consciousness to contemplate the object, [which is] in this place [or, in other words], homogeneous throughout the contents of consciousness do not violate the 2 other grades, and there is a Dhyana, contemplation that is 3.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Here Patanjali introduces the concept of "Dhyana".
Student: It's still translated as "meditation"?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: the fact that the word "meditation" is a European word. When a European says the word "mind", the Eastern sage says: "What is mind? There is Manas, there is buddhi, there is a Citta". And we say, "What are "manasi" what "buddhi", which "Citta"? Mind! Brains you have, the sage, or not?!" And he answers: "Sorry guys, we haven't made you call the three in something close to the tool with a single word, and we long enough with this talk and realize that to say "mind" - to say nothing".
Here also, Patanjali, deals with the last three stages: Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. And Europeans call it all in one word – "meditation".
Student: Between concentration and meditation the difference then is? In the usual sense of concentration is fixity of the mind on some object, and meditation is already in a certain state, that is, the contemplation without effort?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Here you are, by the way, and not right here!
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because the meditation in the ordinary sense, not in the original, what it meant in medieval Europe... by the Way, very interesting to trace the origin of this word: obvious some Latin roots – media, meditate – Wednesday, something intermediate, something connected. There is a large scope for research. But, nevertheless, even the modern word "meditation", which has already received the color of some Eastern influences, it is assumed that if you're in this state you are focused on it, you have a jumping mind.
This paradox, and for me it was also a discovery: when I listen to some of the esteemed Lama often says, "meditation is... the meditation..." or some Eastern guru, who says: "meditation is... the meditation...", - I have the impression that meditation is a word like "yoga", "karma", that is something that came from the East. Nothing of the sort! The word West! Just, apparently, when they translated it into English, for example, the word "meditation" is best suited in the sense, left it.
Student: Usually of the opinion that any person you ask on the street that meditation is something subtle,...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Well, you see, when there is no clear definition, one means by that word something. However, they are right, but only in the sense that a certain phenomenon, which in yoga is divided into several parts, called one word.
So, meditation is impossible without concentration! Even if you use such sophisticated techniques of meditation in tantric Buddhism, or Chan Buddhism, or some Taoist practices - that is, "without effort" and "without an object", however, this process still there is some part unchanged, we feel it inside, even did not mind, but... I don't know what... it's hard for Me to say: this is a few other exercises. However, something remains unchanged. And when we sit down to meditate, whatever we mean by that word, something in itself leave unchanged what we focus and what we do not allow to change. Thus, some part is in focus, and the other part can be anything: painting, watching the clouds fly...
But, again, I repeat: "meditation" is the word European, and here Patanjali spoke in detail about how this can go and what parts it consists.
Student: It's just the fixity of the mind on some object, external or internal?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. But since we're studying the treatise of Patanjali, give a little more seriously will get to the explanation of this aphorism.
Repeat the axiom: we have our "I". This "I", if you will, beam of consciousness. They are refracted in the lake of the mind, which ran the thought waves. And you choose the recurring thoughts of the same concentration and allow the rays of consciousness refracted only this particular template, allowing no other templates (i.e. you are, for example, on the lake of two large waves, one small, two large, one small, and there is a certain periodicity, a certain color of consciousness, this consciousness of course is refracted, but is refracted by the first two big waves then a little, etc.). In the normal state, unconcentrated, everything goes as God blesses: there are big waves and small, and something will fly - no for this frequency. When we concentrate, the waves are, they are one group, there is a cycle, and all the other waves, we shall exclude. Read again the aphorism of Patanjali.
Student: "Contemplation (Dhyana) is the focus of the [uniform] States of consciousness in this [place]".
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: "the focus of the homogeneous States of consciousness". These States are like two great waves and one small: there's something going on, we are concentrating on something, and we cannot say that the head is empty, we cannot say that it is like a snatched shot from the movie, it is rather a chain of frames, fixated in a circle. Now that's called concentration.
Student: it uses the term "contemplation". It has something to do with such a function as monitoring, vision?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: exactly!
Student: what is the secret?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: In European languages, there are no analogues to the definitions of the processes of yoga. The European nation has not dealt with this issue, so lexical support we have.
Now in the field of computer technology, almost all words of English origin because that's where the science is developing and, accordingly, invented the terms. Although there is an absolute equivalent, for example, in Russian language, all words, but we use foreign words, because our words, though similar, do not convey to the end point. Same thing with the word "contemplation". It is, on the one hand, it may be close to such word as "Dhyana," but on the other hand has its own hue, which value transfer is not quite possible. That is, the contemplation can be a dull slide of consciousness.
Here is a cow for its empty eyes watching in the meadow something happens, and she seems to be perceive, but it is happening in this darkened, tamasic, mode, nevoljane. This is a completely different shade. In Dhyana there is sattva, not Tamas, in Dhyana there is activity pushed to the limit, but not stupid vtiranie on what is happening. Therefore, when we say: "He sees" - it sometimes has a negative connotation of stupidity and laziness, we have a connotation of the word "contemplation". And the word "Dhyana" no! It's something that makes the work, it's something that makes to produce a unidirectional effort to support this work.
Student: So we can say that this is a marginal activity, but not the body as in Hatha yoga, in the asanas, or pranayama, is the activity of consciousness? Mind? more subtle forms of energy? In limiting the activity of people already in a state of clarity?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. The concept of inertia – Tamas, the activity of rajas and clarity – sattva - the essence is not owned by some action or object is common Law. The common Law from the point of view of our "I".
Here is our "I" is sitting, and any phenomenon comes to him in these three States. In fact, these phenomena and objects known only to the Lord God, but we position our "I" the incoming signals from the entire Universe, and we can personally emphasize!!! – for myself, to classify them according to three facts. It is either the inertia – Tamas, or activity – the rajas, or clarity – sattva.
As told to a modern scientist, there is no objective basis for these terms, so I do not like using these terms, scientists have built a picture of the world, based on something external. There is very inconvenient to use such terms, as it is for each individual. But when the frame of reference in the perception of the Universe is inside you, then this system of reference is most convenient and provides the best result in terms of explanation. These three phenomena, or as they are called, three "modus", condition may be classified as to physical objects and actions, and to state our thoughts.
Student: I Guess, first thoughts?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Hard to say... We begin to share...
3. It highlights only the object [and] if deprived of its own forms, and has concentration (Samadhi).
Review of Vyasa: When the contemplation is seen only as a form of observing the object 1, as if being devoid of its own form, that is consciousness, then owing to the complete dissolution in the inner self contemplate [object] it is called focus 2.
These three [the higher functions of consciousness] - concentration, contemplation and concentration taken together [get name] sanyama.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: so, the last three stages in yoga of Patanjali is Dharana, Dhyana and, in fact, Samadhi – are called in one word – sangama.
When they say "sangama" you mean Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.
Student: What is it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is, if anything, increased the degree of concentration on a particular object, the gradation of the three – Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.
Samadhi is when there is only one thought about the object or phenomenon, which until then we thought. Speaking your own words: the man sat down and focused on something, but his thoughts begin to run and jump. He keeps them, anyway, trying, and then the concentration increases, and it is in a more stable state perceives it. And finally, the third stage, when it remains only that thought and nothing else, is Samadhi.
This whole process is called sanyama.
A person sits down to meditate, sinking into meditation deeper and attains Samadhi. The word "meditation" is so popular because, as the word, "sangama" describes three of these States combined. So, the end result in concentrations "point of arrival" is Samadhi - what you mentioned Patanjali.
4. Three together sanyama.
Review of Vyasa: the Three means of implementation [of yoga], having the same scope [of application], called sanyama, [that is the highest discipline of consciousness]. Thus, sanyama is the technical term for the [notation] the three [functions of consciousness] in this system 1.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: We have just said about it. Three together in the system of Patanjali is called sanyama. Repeat the axiom.
So, we have our "I", which displays a light of consciousness everything that is in the lake of the mind. On the lake of the mind running waves, our thoughts – conscious, subconscious. Constantly in our head what a mess. And here we sit and all thoughts begin to choose a specific sequence, for example: two large, one small, as we have said. And they are, for example, describe an object – a mug!
I look at a Cup, my senses perceive it, and on the surface of the mind, when I look at the Cup and see only the Cup, there are two big waves, one small. A mosquito flew by, I was distracted, I look at the mosquito, for example, five small waves. It is clear that the harmony of the waves on the surface of my mind was broken, plus I'm distracted by other interference: neighbor banging the wall (nails), anything else - everything bothers me. Another bevy of thoughts, flocks of waves run, and as a result, the whole picture is blurred, as in the TV: the picture is not seen, some distortion! But, nevertheless, I always concentrate on this circle, do not allow yourself to be distracted, direct the consciousness to the Cup, and I again resume two large waves, one small. But it is in the center of the lake of the mind, and on the outskirts there are still ripples that prevents. Then I increase the concentration.
The fact that the mosquito, or neighbor – these are things which can be controlled by the method of pratyahara – a disconnection of the senses and of perception, and that's when the memories come, or some thoughts are abstract, not based on the perception of the outside world, then they fight harder. However, I stress concentration, and these two large and one small waves become very, very stable. But on the periphery still jump small waves. I sit, I realize that I have a body, etc., though more and more I start to forget about it. And finally, there comes a time when these are only two large and one small wave in the lake of my mind. There's nothing else. In this state, I see nothing, hear nothing, do not accept, I am fully absorbed in the object of this mug. And this state is called Samadhi! Samadhi with the object. This is a very strong gradation of Samadhi, but then comes the next version – Samadhi without an object. However, about this later...
Student: is there a process of internal cleansing as a result of deep concentration? The cleaning processes of delicate channels? Just as it happens when you practice pranayama, but probably on a more subtle level?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, you said it right. As in the other yogas, when we apply force, we're trying to rebuild, make more efficient our bodies, particularly the mind. Therefore, there is a certain tendency to inertia, resistance, and requires a systematic approach to bring all this to the end.
In the intermediate parts of this path, the phenomena, when a period of clarity, the period of effective work on the mental plane is replaced by fatigue of the mind. Similarly, when active physical activity or during sports muscles produce and accumulate lactic acid, and in the morning all achy. The mind also needs to rest so he could digest this load. But later the same load it will digest without any side effects.
The point is that just as we build muscle, we can also develop the mind. Someone seems sacrilege that in one row I put some muscles and the mind, which is all mankind so proud of (after all, building rockets, bombers). But in fact the mind is the same function, this property of energy, a property of the body, is a subtle form of matter. And he also trains the same way uncomfortable when you're trying to force him to do anything, like muscles that don't stretch, because it is not developed. That mind inertia manifests. But by and large this is no different processes.
In our country there were many different very respected teachers, and they all in one voice say: no such thing bad student, is bad teaching methodology, bad teachers. And they are right! Need an individual approach. The latest and dumb disciple – no problem. It just means that work is more than a gifted student. It differs, but it can make a genius! The question of labour expended, and time should not be discounted, but it is impossible to say that this is Einstein, and this one is a loader. And loader can be a well-known technique of training to do Einstein. In any case, the theory of yoga confirms this.
5. Thanks to her mastery of [arises] the light of wisdom.
Review of Vyasa: Thanks to the mastery of Canyamel arises the light of wisdom 1, [generated] concentration. To the extent that sanyama becomes [increasingly] to be stable, the same as the wisdom of concentration [becoming increasingly] clear.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: If the last three stages in yoga which are called here "sangama", practiced by man, they rebuild his body both physically, and mentally.
Student: What does that mean?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Starts to work reason, that is, the system becomes perfected, and it starts correctly reflect the physical world, the physical Universe. But if it starts up properly it to reflect, it begins to draw the right conclusions and to lead to the Commission of correct actions. This is what is called wisdom.
And it is natural! If you come to information you correctly analyzed it, you make the right conclusion. And the degree of accuracy increases in direct proportion to involvement in this practice – what is called Patanjali "sangavi".
6. Her application [shall] stepwise.
Review of Vyasa: Application 1 [sanyama is] the stage of the practice immediately after the steps have already been through this sanyama. None of [the yogin] not mastered the previous stage [of practice] may not, leaving the next step to achieve sanyama higher degrees. And in its absence, whence [can occur] from him the light of wisdom?
Further, sanyama [the yogin] who owing to a hope 2 on Isvara possessed a higher stage, does not apply to mind reading, etc. those on the lower rungs of practice 3.
Because this objective is achieved by other means. Only yoga teaches that this stage immediately follows this step.
- It is said: "Yoga should know by yoga; yoga develops through yoga. The one who diligently practices yoga for a long time remains joyful in yoga".
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: it is clear that it is not possible to "fall out" in Samadhi, if you have at least some initial steps made in the field of concentration concentration. In any case, in this approach it is. There are other approaches, we remember this. But, by and large, other approaches do not contradict this...
Student: in the other approaches don't need concentration?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, but there it goes so quickly and concisely that sometimes it seems that you were in a normal state, the loosening of consciousness, and then - kaboom! and fell into Samadhi. You really very quickly passed increasing degree of concentration, contemplation and then the contemplation of the pushed - in Samadhi, as it is very fast, it seems that here it is again! - and it is. Holy guru went to the student-the Goonies, knocked him on the head, and he quickly prosvetlilsia.
Student: And where all previous stages?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: A stage is passed, but very quickly.
7. Three internal [in contrast,] from the preceding.
Review of Vyasa: These three concentration, contemplation and concentration — internal essence [tool] 1 cognitive concentration in contrast to the first five self-control and other means of implementation [of yoga] 2.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Here I want to emphasize the point that the original five of the eight stages of Patanjali set the stage - they are more associated with the external manifestations, and the last three more associated with the inner world. So you can practice Hatha-yoga, pranayama to do and absolutely do not care about some internal peace, do not worry about focus, concentration, and yoga will still act.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because it is through the external affects the internal.
In these last three levels are all exactly the opposite: working inside, we vozdeistviem on the outside. That is, when you do concentration meditation, then, whether you like it or not, rebuilds all structures of the body, including the physical. Here's the aspect: all these degrees are divided into internal methods and external but internal and external application of forces similar. In General, everything changes.
Student: So difficult to start with internal methods, they are more subtle?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes. Ask the average person and still get to spend a few hours in meditation! First, he will not be able to spend so much time motionless, and secondly, he will have some discomforts, thoughts will be to visit "what's he doing here, when friends drink beer"...
But if advanced techniques to prepare it with the help of Hatha yoga, pranayama, to teach him to disconnect from annoying signals of the Universe, then to spend a few hours in meditation will be for him not a punishment, but rather a happiness, and he will be with impatience to wait for the time when once again sit down to meditate.
It is a real fact that can experience everyone: meditation brings tremendous joy, inner happiness, tranquility, harmony. And even if the extent of your concentration is low, still those waves of happiness come.
Student: But why?!
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because they are embedded in us! There is no happiness outside of us! Therefore, given the rough methods, then to go to thin. But there are people who, through their previous karma has already worked these steps. It is not necessary to do Hatha yoga to develop your body: professional gymnast still has a flexible, appropriate body, and he had no reason, maybe to focus on Hatha-yoga, if he whole life working his body. Probably, it makes sense to start directly with meditation. The sequence of steps of Patanjali is not broken, because he worked the stage, but outside of the yoga system.
And here comes one and says: "I don't want to meditate, want to do" and another, "want to Meditate, and the rest I'm not interested". From the point of view of yoga, both the fair approach. The gymnast, who sits down to meditate and achieves some success, continues to improve and your physical body. But if before it was worked on coarse levels, when meditation is already the thinnest pollution go. And the logic is not broken: part methods – thin, part of the methods rude.
Student: if the person is not a gymnast, but rather hurts him anything?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, or a case where the previous karma does not allow you to do in this direction breakthrough. Oddly enough, the disease sometimes come, if this direction is not necessary. It's like war when you broke through the enemy's defenses on the left flank and penetrated 150 miles, and the rears are lagging behind... and then the nature of covers you this way: "No, not necessary now for you to do these physical things with it, and so would be all right; you better calm your mind, which rushes like a rat, you better pay more attention to a calm, focused state."
In this sense, the universe is fair. A person comes and says: "Yes, I never sit in the Lotus posture, and do not try to seat me!" To which I reply, "I'm never going to try to do this! Make a detour, to make a breakthrough mentally, and as soon as you do this break even if you are neither one minute was not engaged physically, the body will begin to change. And that moment when you make that mental breakthrough, you suddenly to his surprise discovers that the body has become more flexible. And if before in a nightmare you could not dream that you are sitting in the Lotus position, now you on the contrary feel a certain tendency to sit in this position".
Everything is interconnected, and the only question is, what to pull. Absolutely silly when it comes to people, and he said: "Well, dear, while in the Lotus position will not sit you in yoga, to do nothing." It is nonsense! Just wrong understanding! Influencing thin, we change coarse, affecting rough, we change the subtle, affecting the external, we change the internal, acting on the inner changes the outer.
Student: what are the criteria, what is internal and what is external?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: this is Not graduation! There is one gradation to humans: is there anything his "I" his "I" is not. As well as in relation to "I" everything is something external, there is no difference, are the first subtle energy of mind and thought, meditation and mindfulness, or gross energy physical exercises, breathing, and other "push-UPS and stands at the head." From the point of view of "I", both - generally speaking, external.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because when a person truly falls into the "I", in the internal, and then to talk about – everything! The goal is achieved! So where to start – with the rough energy or thin is a matter of preference.
8. And they - external [media concentration], "devoid of the seed" 1.
Review of Vyasa: the same three internal means of implementation are external [means] of yoga, "without seed".
Because it arises when the termination 2. But if at the time of the cessation of [the activity of] consciousness the deployment of the Gong continues, what is in this case the nature of the change of consciousness?
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Here an interesting remark is about the basic theory.
We remember that every act that we perform, or any moment of life we live, bring in some seeds - seeds of future karma, positive or negative. That is what we now do, we build a chain of causation, and in the future the result of what we do now. If we have someone hurt and do bad things, then you earn bad karma and get a bad result, if we do good deeds, helping someone, you earn good karma and get good result.
But we remember that the criterion of good and bad no. Sometimes, someone hurting, we are doing good karma to themselves and to him. That little child has been very naughty, and we punished him. We hurt his feelings. But he realized that to do so is impossible, and ceased to do so, thus we and he have benefited themselves and others.
There is no objective list of good and bad deeds.
Student: But what we then are guided in making a choice?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Each of us intuitively feels and knows the consequences of a particular act...
Now, each of our second sows the seeds of future fields of karma. As a farmer who plowed a field, scattering seeds, and after a while crept up the ears, and so do we. We stand with one foot already in the field-grown fruit of karma, and the other leg standing on clean plowed field and sow new seeds. It started with no beginning, and will be repeated indefinitely.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because the concept of time is the concept of karma. With the disappearance of karma disappears. Paradox! So when asked: "How many people will suffer in this world?" – this question is incorrect. Until then, until they will cancel the time, they will be in this time to live and time is infinite. On the other hand, off time, people will come out of it with the cessation of karma. In other words, there are some issues, the production of which is devoid of meaning.
But we are in a time field, the field of influences that we previously generated. We've done things and is now reaping the benefits. And we would like to somehow get out of this situation.
Student: What can we do?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: We can no longer disperse the seeds of karma - either good or bad. Then after some time there will be neither good nor bad results, and we won't depend on good or bad karma.
The apprentice: How to live a second time, not sowing its future fruit of karma, not scattering the seeds of the future "happiness" and "unhappiness"?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: There is a method. About it and says yoga of Patanjali. Through these three stages, called sanyama. This is the essence of the internal methods.
Here you went inside and passed out from the coarse energy, you do not see or hear in the outside world. A phone call, and you don't even know what a telephone is. Then, as you concentration, you are disconnected from thin levels. Focusing on the mug, that mug you just know - no memories, no nothing, except for mugs. You from the intermediate layers of energy, memories and other things, moved away, separated. And finally, the last part: here you have this circle in mind, there is nothing, a white sheet, and on it a mug, even a white sheet no one mug. And in the future hop! and that mug is gone. For you disappeared. At the time of the Samadhi without an object, the time disappears. Outside it goes. You're a split second out of this world or maybe.
Student: And that at this moment it happens?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: for this moment you did not finish planting the field of karma, either positive or negative seeds. That is, in this continuous series of causes and effects white spots appear. There is no karma, neither good nor bad!
Student: What does that mean?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This means that you are free. The larger these intervals, the degree of your freedom higher.
Student: It's after practice, in everyday life, occur these gaps?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yeah, when you fell in Samadhi without thoughts, karma, which was to be deployed, not deployed, and the new has not sown. And then, when you came out of Samadhi, you got others, you're left with a much greater degree of freedom, you've got to maneuver, you can get around the other waves of karma, negative or positive, but in this field of freedom. And the more time you spend in this sanyama, the greater will be your freedom. Thus, you'll be remove and remove the karma, both good and bad, and be free.
Student: after you exit this state by behaviour of people to a lesser extent exposed to the results?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: outset: what are the criteria that you spent those two hours in an unconscious state or in the highest Samadhi? How to define? It is clear that everything is determined by the fruit. Of course, if you yourself have experienced, you can't go wrong. And the other person? What can we say about it?
Ivan Ivanovich Petrov lived a normal life, but he announced that he falls into Samadhi. He gathered all fell into Samadhi, then he came out and suddenly everything started to feel for Ivan Ivanovitch's great wisdom: he became incomprehensible and mysterious in the positive sense of the word, the wiser he became. Everyone starts to respect him because they felt something about him that no other. The only way to determine whether Mr. Smith in Samadhi or playing the fool for two hours.
Student: can you define Samadhi by the fact that it will be cold, like a corpse, at this time?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: No, it is impossible to determine. You can swallow some stuff and also to be as cold as a corpse, and the pupils to light will not respond, but this is not Samadhi. It's just trepobatinae the state of the body.
Every second spent in the state of Samadhi, for the real liberation of the soul very much. If the person returning from Samadhi, begins to do something, then it has no tendency to create bad karma. But he would not have come if there was such a tendency, he simply would not have achieved this level. He starts to do things that to a lesser extent, endowed with karma, he negates the fact that he has a degree of freedom.
We are here under the word "Samadhi" in one pile all shoveled... it is Clear that is proportional to the degree of concentration. The stronger the concentration, the smaller grains of the karma you have sown, but it is not an abrupt process, but is proportional: more focus – less seed planted, degree of freedom in the future has grown. Not necessarily so: either all planted or nothing. There are gradations.
In fact, built on it and yoga. That's why we know about the wise men, about people who have achieved a lot, but continue to go. All learning. Stop learning only when it reaches the level of the absolute, God. Until then all learning.
9. The change [of consciousness on the stage] stop associated with consciousness in the moments of termination of [his activities], there is [nothing like] the weakening of the active Samskaras and the appearance of sanskar depressed 1.
Review of Vyasa: Actively manifested Samskaras, or forming the factors, there is a qualitatively defined state of consciousness (the mind); in essence they are not cognitive acts, and therefore can not be stopped upon the termination of cognitive acts 2. Suppressed (lit. "stopped". - Per.) Samskaras also include quality-specific States of consciousness. Their weakening and the appearance of 3 [means that]- active Samskaras are declining, and [instead of) acquired stopped Samskaras. The time of a stop inseparably linked with consciousness.
This alternation sanskar occurring every moment in the consciousness, and there is a change [of consciousness on the stage] stop. Then in the minds of remain [alone] Samskaras, or forming the factors. It was explained [earlier] in connection with the concentration achieved in the termination [of it] 4.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Come to think of it, what is samskara. This kind of experience, impressions that go through your head, prints of previous experience, but which, in turn, forced to do new things.
You're walking down a deserted street, suddenly, you're popping up the villain with a baton. If you have had such good karma that you would not know that there are evildoers, you would not even scared, but since you know who that is, you live in this world, then you have the impression: the villain, the threat, it is necessary to read the relevant mantra to evaporate. You stop, read a mantra, and it evaporates. Come closer and it turns out that this Bush was.
Student: As they appear – Samskaras? Where do they come from?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: External stimulation comes through the senses; and then there are some associations that are associated either with pleasure or with pain. If they are connected with one, we go in one direction, if the other reaction is appropriate. Further, our behavior depends on this reaction. One experience after another, others third, and as a result we are in the cycle of karma. One compels us to do another, and another, the third, and the circle closes.
Student: the word "Samskaras" which means?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: "Samskaras" here can be translated mainly as "impressions".
Generally it is a very complex concept. This kind of mental function which, except "impression" has such a semantic mark – "creation of the Universe." That is the modification of the mind and consciousness, which further alters the Universe in one direction or another, creates future karma in the form of changes of the Universe in one direction or another. But in this treatise it is better to consider as "experience".
And these impressions in bulk, and we start under their action, to do something.
Here is an example. Once the Foundation is calling: bring your money to us, in the land of Fools, in the Field of Miracles, and after some time there will grow a money tree. We have the impression that the money tree is good, and we were going to run to bury the money. Sanskar begins to unfold, and this will lead to the fact that we will run and bury your four coins. But before you run we decided to meditate. And is directly proportional to involvement in meditation we are moving away from that sense. We dulls and eventually suppressed. It is, of course, does not disappear completely, but ceases to be such an exciting, haunting and mind-numbing, we begin to analyze it, we stopped "violent" its manifestation. But if we force her to be in a depressed state, we suppress the unfolding of your own karma. Accordingly, we become more free.
Let's look at this algorithm from the point of view of internal metaphysics.
So, the senses have brought us some news: the eyes that saw, ears heard something. In our buddhi through Manas, the senses brought information from the gross senses to the subtle, then through the filter of Manas information passed on same in the buddhi. Buddhi sattva made of crystal-clear matter, and buddhi made an exact copy of the object or phenomenon that is perceived through our senses. And more specifically, on the lake buddhi began to spread waves of a certain color. And that this phenomenon was reproduced in our buddhi. In addition, we have memory, we compare this phenomenon with all the experience that we had was...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Because if we don't have any experience, we would not know what to do. Picture this, you have landed on a planet and see a silver cube that lies on the surface. You have questions: what is it? Whether to fear him or he happy? Bomb or treasure?.. But if you had any experience, and your reaction to the waves in the buddhi is appropriate: are you going to do or some things or others.
But here's the RUB: the vast majority of your previous experience applicable to the situation that is unfolding right now! That is, at 80 percent, may be applicable, but 20% is not applicable! However, you engulfing previous experience, and you begin to do so, as he always did. Clearly, you do stupid, do not adequately as should do. This set of waves was replaced with another, the other – on the third and so on. And here you have the lake Manasa running waves, one begets, the other third, etc., some looped, one ring begets another, and another, the third, and soD. and the last first. And every circle is still growing as the arms race. Made tank – made missile, then missiles, then the stronger tank and so on. And we have to find some way out.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: first, to suppress the power of these impressions, Samskaras.
Yes, comes the impression, but if before you rushed to respond to him, in yoga as you do it more intelligently, more detached, more sober and nevoljane. That is, you assuage these Samskaras, and not your whole head is occupied with these thoughts, and some still analyzes.
Student: And how to do it – some of the energy to divert? And below you on the surface of the mind there were two source of thoughts? To some part of your mind would be stable and unchanging, no matter what waves there passed, and you were like a small "island" from which you analyze the whole changing world. And this island of anything independent?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, if it was formed, you have impartially analyzed and not doing anything stupid, accordingly, do not sow the seeds of future Samskaras, other waves, the other of karma.
Student: How can I get this island?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Only when you start to go into the inner world, to a greater extent to focus on a particular...
But when I say "escape into the inner world" - this does not mean that you should focus on something internal. Same reaches, say, a scientist, an astronomer. The siege of Leningrad, around hell, and he sits down and writes a treatise on some of the lights, and he's mentally there, he's not here, in this hell. So, from the point of view of yoga, it simply inhibits the Samskaras of this utter hell...
10. The peaceful flow [is achieved] through sanskara.
Review of Vyasa: a steady flow of consciousness 1 occurs depending on the mastery of "work" with sanskari in "stopped" state, [or, as it is said in Sutra], "thanks sanskara". With the weakening of such sanskar sanskar gravitating to a stop is suppressed that has properties 2 active manifestations.
11. The change in concentration is the cessation mohanpram of certainty of consciousness and the emergence of its single-slope operation 1.
Review of Vyasa: a Focus on all objects is a property of consciousness, one-pointedness there is also a property of consciousness. Termination of mnogonatsionaljnostj means of its gradual disappearance. The occurrence of one pointedness, or concentration, of consciousness], there is her appearance, and that is the meaning [of the sutras].
Consciousness is the support of both these properties. And so this consciousness, accompanied by the two properties - the disappearance [of mnogonatsionaljnostj] and appearance [one-way] are the very essence of concentration reaches 2. This is the change/development of mindfulness of consciousness 3.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: so, our model, which is our mind, from the finest transparent substance; on the surface of the lake moving waves of thought; over the lake the Sun is shining our "I" and the beam of Consciousness. The rays of the Consciousness Shine through the waves on the lake surface, and as a result there is a kind of a game world. Because the waves run across the lake in a chaotic manner, different-different...
Student: Where do they come from?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: This is for all those impressions, which come and cause some waves. Modifying substance of our mind lead to the fact that the rays are refracted in different ways: there's the Sun, it hung over the lake , and hanging beams straight from him how to spread and propagate, they do not change. But the appearance in the substance of our mind a different kind of thinking leads to games of shadow and light, of the game our thoughts. If we are on the lake in a beautiful Sunny summer day let's see we from afar it will seem that the lake is all sorts of glare - in the same way and our minds: it hosts millions of different kinds of thoughts, the result is this "refraction of sun rays" and the game. In the end, we perceive within yourself, in your mind, many thoughts, momentary currents, a series of thoughts, one after the other. Moreover, a wind blew in one direction – have thoughts of the same type, in the other direction – thoughts of a different type, came some impression in the mind alone, then we have observed the same sort of thought and so on and so forth. It's a normal – dispersion - the state of our mind, our Consciousness.
Compared to the inert state, the state of the animal is a very big achievement. But from the point of view of a higher, spiritual, it is quite wasteful as when in your mind too many uncontrollable thoughts.
Student: And what to do about it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: You start different kind of methods the number of these waves of thoughts to reduce to a specific, that is contracted to a point. Were a billion thoughts, a billion waves was one million was one million was one thousand and so on in descending order. This process is called concentration!
Student: But what I wanted to say Patanjali in his aphorism?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: When you on the surface of the lake there is only one wave, which plays into one refract the rays of light and play, it is the same property modifications of consciousness, as when thousands of thoughts are playing. That is, it does not differ in any qualitative basis! But when one wave of thoughts - this condition is called concentration, and when a lot of them – we are not called concentration. Here is a rough explanation of this aphorism, with an emphasis on the fact that both condition – it's just the refracted light of consciousness through waves of thoughts, but on the one hand these waves of thoughts very much and they are chaotic, and in the other case, when focusing, the number of these waves is less and less, and they have a pattern of occurrences that a certain form. So , they are becoming less and less, and as they become smaller, the degree of our concentration increases.
Student: so there is a growing awareness of "I"? This sun that shines?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: In any case, from now on people will not cling to the mind, as the only light source. When on the lake, and there are millions and millions of waves, the lake seems to glow, and a person is not inclined to look for some other source of light. This is similar to how an intelligent man is not inclined to seek God, his own soul or any higher power: when a huge light is shining his own mind, he met them. As soon as the thoughts become less and less, comes this suspicious feeling that the mind is only a reflection of a more powerful source. Here then, really, really conceived the idea that the mind is a more powerful source.
We're studying the yoga of Patanjali, are already achievements that have been made by the previous sages, we learn their way, but if we don't have such possibility and we would scratch it all was, then surely sooner or later would have come to the point where we would be force of will or force of his desire had reduced the number of thoughts in my head. Then we would not know may be that there is an "I". After all, once we are nobody said, we do not realize and do not worry; accordingly, we would not even know that we have the "I", we would consider that we have a mind. Good intellectual, a scientist is very difficult to prove that above the mind there is something else. He says: "why do you come up with a new entity? Of mind and all so well explained. Why invent any thing difficult to prove and difficult to understand, when, apparently, everything is explained by the reason?"
But when you start to shrink thoughts in mind, then you cease to meet ends meet, and the scientist begins to realize that one reason nothing is explained. The mind explains 99.9% of ordinary citizens ' lives, however, for this, as it seems the Burger is 1%, but in fact it is 99.9% - it's just a tiny fraction of that power that is hidden here in this little share. And then comes the first sensation that the mind is something more Supreme and more powerful than the mind. Then comes a feeling that, by and large, what is "I". It is difficult to say that awareness of "I" increased, because it increases for those people who really believe that this is so. Who, for example have not experienced this condition, but believe.
Student: I understand that people who practice yoga of concentration, who is engaged in concentration, who focused your mind, you know: the less thoughts, the more energy, the closed-loop thinking, is released and she goes into his controlled form, the natural state. And this condition is recognized, the power of consciousness increases. If one thought, then the energy is closed just for this thought, not many...
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: No. There is a fundamental, very hard transition. About this aphorism: even if one thought you have in your head, you are in Samadhi, it is still your "I" perceives only one that thought...
Student: But not Itself?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, not Itself, and this idea, why it's so hard to say...
Student: Maybe the suffering less, if you realize just one thought?..
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: No. The question of suffering, attitude, he is 3 orders of magnitude less than this fundamental question of recognition itself. Yes, if you have one thought in your head, you reached Samadhi , you are out of pain. You just can't physically give a turn to karma, and no.
Student: But this is related things! If you have a little suffering if you don't suffer, you have your level as if the internal implementation of the above?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: If you do not suffer, there is no interference for this to happen! You know?
There is no interference to make it happen! But this is not the only factor that to happen! You know? It is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. That's why, for example, though the inhabitants of heaven and live in his heaven and do experience great pleasure, but it does not mean anything! They have the opportunity, maybe, to jump to the last stage faster than a regular mortal man, but if out of this world there is no incentive to go beyond this world, it is very difficult to say anything on this matter.
Student: But I understand that it is not the absolute level, not a qualitative, not finite, not absolute awareness of his "I". This degree of spiritual realization. It is possible to distribute it through the levels: if a million thoughts in my head is one level, if a thousand is a another, if a hundred is the third, if one is a higher spiritual level?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yes, of course! Patanjali, oddly enough, the same classification and is given in sanyama. When one thought in mind, it is Samadhi , when in fact dominated by one main idea, but from time to time there are some side waves of thoughts, this state of concentration, when a smaller degree of concentration, when more interference, more extraneous thoughts, then it's just the degree of concentration.
Just the last 3 stages of the yoga of Patanjali and divided by the number of thoughts in my head. But even the state of Samadhi, when you have one thought in mind - that's not a guarantee that you went beyond that you have no more nothing! That is, you need another step!
By the way, here's this step last, when you go from having one thought to absence of thought, when the rays of Consciousness directed at its own self - it is by and large out of the plane in the third dimension. Before that, even when just one thought, is just a plane, may be very subtle, maybe a very powerful state, but still yet due to the world. When you jump out of it, you already, in principle, no longer determined.
Thus Patanjali brings in their system consistently to reduce, reduce and reduce thoughts until, until there remains one idea, and then got to come here this state of "out" or as they also called, the "unconscious concentration." That's what we're called "conscious concentration". So here you can meditate on this subject...
12. Finally, the change in the one pointedness of consciousness [is] the identity of the past and the resulting cognitive content.
Review of Vyasa: the Past, i.e. prior to, content is concentrated consciousness 1 [is called] a soothing 2, and following him and identical with him [called contents] generated 3. The mind in a state of mindfulness is inextricably linked to both [types of educational content], and so continues until, until the termination of the [concentration] 4. In fact, this is the change/development of one pointedness of consciousness as the bearer [of a qualitatively-defined conditions] 5.
Review of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: Here's a little caveat: one focus of consciousness and the multidirectionality of consciousness.
Student: what is it about?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: People in everyday life has multidimensional consciousness, come to him millions of influences from the Universe, and his consciousness jumps. It jumps from one thought to another, but does it so fast that sometimes it seems that consciousness is simultaneously directed to 25 completely different nuances, moments, thoughts, trends, movements.
Student: And what does yoga?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: Yoga says that this is just a very quick jumping from one thought to another so fast , that sometimes it seems like it's completely the opposite, different thoughts. For example, here is a man working an ordinary average person is nuts tightening at the factory. However, he recalls how he was having a good time this past weekend, and tightening the screws, thinking it's all better to do. It may give the impression that he is simultaneously doing two completely different things: his own reflections and work. But really his mind just very quickly jump from one to another very quickly. This transition of the person does not notice, and it seems that there is 2 processes or more.
So, when a lot of them - this kind of processes would be the dominant mind jumps from one thing to another, but it does not attenuate all others. Let's say a 90% one and 10% for the remaining. And so it jumps like a monkey: there, here, to something else. And it's called multidimensional consciousness. As soon as the person starts to focus and direct their mind only on one thing or phenomenon, such a consciousness is called unidirectional.
Student: how can it be achieved?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: In the following aphorism is given a purely conceptual approach, how is it possible to achieve unidirectional consciousness. After all, the common man is much closer to Omni-directional consciousness. But how to force this whole process to converge on one thought, there is such reflections on this subject: any thought, any direction of consciousness creates seeds of future manifestations of this movement. And the fact that consciousness has "left" that it is as if "asleep", it is not so! For example, I felt some anxiety, and then it was gone, and I feel like I have nothing left. Actually it is not, from this anxiety of the traces of this anxiety in the form of grains of karma, and they are only waiting for his time again to bloom and give some fruit. It repeats: one dies, another spawns.
But there is such an actual method, such a set of ideas or a set of practices , when you choose a way of thinking, when with each step you have the fruits of karma converge into one.
Student: please Explain.
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: That is, if you had millions of tens of actions, and every ten spawned a dozen different lines of seeds, now you choose this style of behavior when you have multidimensional consciousness, but, for example, 2 some kind of parallel areas were given a single seed. As a result, over time, you have two karmas, two thoughts, turned out one thought - is this process of "convergence". You're driving all the variety of emotions, all experiences to some 50 groups out of a million you collected 50 from 50 - still fewer, and so on.
Then you got quite a bit of these symptoms, primarily emotional: anger, hatred, thirst, desire - what motivates a person, what makes to be born millions of related thoughts. For every thought there is a "Ticker" emotional, which makes this idea to develop. Example: I think, as I open the safe; why I think so - because I greed to money, I want to open the safe and get rich. If it were not for this interview, which made me long to sit and think, how opened this safe, I wouldn't worry. That is what I am talking about!
And everything starts gradually reduced to the main areas. You see, I have 250000 of your thoughts have something in common that they all lead to greed or anger or some emotion. And if you can learn to control this manifestation that has learned to control the expression of these 250000 of these motives!
Thus, the whole process begins to converge, and consciousness occurs less and less waves, consciousness moves from an omnidirectional to unidirectional!
Student: you can not concentrate simultaneously on two things, if, for example, a person is, something nags, say, at the same time recalls how he spent yesterday, etc.?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: you Can, but this is technology. Techniques are sometimes quite the opposite. Do doctors have such aphorism: poison in certain amounts is a cure. Exactly the same thing here: sometimes a certain manifestation of seemingly opposite phenomena, leads rather to the opposite result. This, oddly enough, one of the basic principles of tantric sadhana, the tantric practice. Any where, at first glance, as they are called, "poisons" are an elixir. But it's a different story. It should just in each practice to keep track of what to do.
Student: It is possible to simultaneously engage two processes?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: moreover, it is sometimes useful, because you're trying to focus on one, and you have this background are the millions of little thoughts, you did not even catch. And then you have 2 competing thoughts, and if your mind focuses on one thought, the second thought that million other minor thoughts takes energy, and you get a million or two. Yoga have this ability - to simultaneously do many things, like Julius Caesar. Tell you what, he oversaw the battle, wrote memoirs, etc. and not lose the thread. He was involved in a dozen cases, and all were surprised, how can he do that?! But in reality he's just a rational approach to the energy of his mind. Unlike the ordinary average Burger, which in the head 10 thousands of simultaneous divergent thoughts, Caesar reduced them to 10, and the 10 worked perfectly. In terms of focus it was much more focused than Burger, who thinks what he thinks about one thing, and really thinks about 10 thousand and one things! That is, it seems to him the main one, everything else is background.
Here such methods. In Raja yoga is perfected, as it is to bring everything together. I don't want to say that from tomorrow all tried to think of one. There are different methods. Here we consider as if the fundamental aspects, what it leads to. But how to achieve this... read More we talk about this later. Sometimes it seems that you're doing the opposite, and in the end reach the nominal desired effect.
13. Thus is explained the change of quality specific, distinguishing features and conditions [of existence] of elements and senses.
Review of Vyasa: It is to be understood [in the sense that] thereby, through the previously explained change in consciousness in the form of quality specific 1, distinguishing features and conditions [of existence], and explained also changes in the qualitative definiteness, distinguishing features and conditions [of existence] of the elements and sense organs 2.
Here the change in the qualitative certainty and change distinctive characteristics in substrate-carrier [i.e., consciousness], there is a lessening of qualities in an active state and their manifestation in the "stopped" state. Stop, or termination [of the deployment], has three distinctive symptom being associated with three forms of time. Indeed, it is understood as a distinguishing feature that exists in the present moment and which, already having lost the first temporal form is the property of the future, not beyond [its] quality specific 3. What is its manifestation through the inner self, and is her second time form. However, it is not devoid of connection with past and future distinguishing characteristics.
Similarly, the active manifestation of the [States of consciousness] also has three distinctions, being associated with three forms of time. It is [a manifestation], found last hallmark, has lost the sign, existing at the moment, and not beyond [its] quality of certainty. This is his third temporary form, but it is not without connection with the future and present distinctive features.
Likewise, the arising active manifestation of the [States of consciousness], having lost his future distinction and within [their own] a quality of certainty, finds a real distinctive feature, in which it implements its function, speaking in his own form. This is his second temporary form, but it is also not devoid of connection with the past and the future [distinguishing features]. And so [it is changing] — stop [of consciousness], then again, its active manifestation.
In the same way [one should understand] and change of conditions of existence: at the instant of stopping [it] stop sanskaras and sanskaras of the active symptoms subside. This is the change in the conditions of existence of qualitatively-defined conditions.
Here is a variation of the substrate carrier is using qualitatively defined state, change qualitatively in certain States, [characterized by] the three forms of time, through distinctive signs, and the change of distinctive features — via the conditions of existence. In other words, due to changes in the quality and in certain States, distinctive features and conditions of existence, the deployment of the modes does not stop for a moment, for this deployment is [eternal] movement 4.
But as mentioned, the reason for the activities of the gunas — their own nature. Shall mean the three kinds of changes to [the"great] elements" and the senses, because there is a difference between quality-a specific state and the carrier substrate. However, in the highest sense there is only one change, as Dharma, that is, qualitatively-specified condition,— not that other as your own form the carrier-substrate, and through the Dharma manifested only [certain] modification of the carrier. In the carrier substrate occurs only a shape change of the existence of the cash [that is, present in the moment], the Dharma relative to the past, present and future modes of time, and not change [itself] of the substance. This is similar to [the case] when breaking the Golden pot, then turn it into something else, but this changes not the gold, but only its form of existence 5.
- The other, [i.e. the opponent] says: the media is not something existing apart from the Dharmas, because it is not beyond the real essence of [its] quality-defined conditions. If it was [something] present [in all their certain] conditions, but different from them, [that] he would be a [something] completely unchanged, although associated [with its] earlier and later States.
That doesn't prove the fallacy [of our discussion].
- Because you can't come to absolutely unequivocal conclusion. So, this threefold world is losing its individual forms [of manifestation], as denied [him] forever. But in their absence it exists, because it denied [his] destruction. Its "thin" form [of existence] due to the merge [Gong], but because of the confluence of its "subtlety" is not perceived.
Qualitative distinctness in the change of distinctive features is present [in all three] forms of time. She [called] last, when it is associated with the last hallmark is not without connection with the present and the future [distinguishing features]. Accordingly, [it is called] of the future, when it is associated with the future distinctive sign and not without connection with the present and past distinguishing features. Similarly, it is true, that is existing at the moment when she connected with this hallmark is not devoid of connection with past and future distinguishing characteristics, just as a man attracted to a woman, is not free from the attraction to other women.
Others, however, find the error [in this argument]: in case of change of distinction because of the relationship of each characteristic with all the hallmarks there is a mixture of forms of time.
The refutation of this objection [is as follows]. Property Dharmas to be of high quality with certainty does not require proof. With the existence of quality certainty you must also consider the difference distinguishing features. Their qualitative distinctness does not apply only to the present time. If that were so, consciousness could not have the property of passionate desire, as in the time of wrath it was not shown. Moreover, it is impossible that [multi-temporal] the distinguishing characteristic would be a characteristic of one individual at a time. However, they can occur in a time sequence due to the action of manifesting their causes. As mentioned [earlier], high-intensity forms and actions contradict each other, but the usual [form and action] coexist with intense. Therefore, the mixing time does not occur. For example, actively passion directed only to the specific object [not to say that] it is not at this time in relation to other [facilities]. It still exists, but only in the usual form. Thus, it exists then to them. The same thing [you can say] and distinctive identification.
Three tenses [describe] is not a carrier substrate, they refer to Dharma or qualitative certainty, which can be manifested or unmanifested. When they manifest, they are finding a particular state, are defined according to their differences; [in other words], they vary in their state [or circumstances], but not substantial. So, the unit in the position of hundreds [means] a hundred, in the position of ten - ten, and in the position units of the - unit. Similarly, one and the same woman is called mother, daughter, and sister.
Some say that the [approval] state change [occurs] error conclusion about the immutability of the [all features].
- Due to the fact that forms of time are divided according to [the principle of] activities: when a Dharma does not perform its function, then it is the future as it executes, then it is true; when performing [a function, a Dharma] ceased to exist, then it is last. Thus, there is a [view] of the immutability of quality in certain States, [their] media features and conditions of existence. Others called it a mistake. But in reality, there is no mistake.
- Because of the variety [of ways] of the interaction of the modes even in the eternity of [their] media. Just as [individual] form is not that other, as having a beginning and end of the qualitative distinctness of sound and other things, [caused by] the indestructible Qualities, and the Linga (sign) is only having the beginning and the end quality certainty indestructible gunas - sattva and others. The idea of transformation [and is] of such [qualitative certainty].
This [can lead] the next example. [In the manufacturing process of the pot] with clay, a substance, due to the adoption of a specific form of a ball moving from [his] quality of certainty in different quality certainty. In this transformation of qualitative certainty. The shape of the pot, losing your future hallmark, becomes a distinctive sign, present in the moment. Is a transformation of distinction. Pot, every moment of the experience being presented as new or old, shows transformation of States or conditions of existence.
Another quality certainty is the state of the substrate carrier, and another aspect as a quality of certainty. Thus, [such] distinctions demonstrate [ultimately] only a transformation from one [and the same] substance. Similar consideration should be given to other category 6.
This transformation of quality specific, distinguishing features and States do not go beyond its own essence media, [i.e. substance]; in other words, there is only one transformation, which affects all of these specific characteristics.
So what is transformation or change? The change is the emergence of new qualitative certainty, the disappearance of the former quality specific substance, which remains constant. Here...
14. media [i.e., substance], consistently a exhausted, cash [or] ineffable quality certainty.
Review of Vyasa: Dharma, or a quality of certainty, there is nothing like the ability (lit. "energy".— TRANS.) media limited [specific] application. And it has real existence, is logically inferred from a variety of the produced consequences which are perceived as one or the other [the specific form] one [and the same substance]. The real, [that is available at this time], the Dharma - TA, which is represented in the experience of how to implement their own activities 1; it is different from other Dharmas - "soothing", [i.e., exhausted], or "unspeakable", [that is, those that cannot be defined].
But when it acts as common, [common to all these States], then what it is and how it differs [from other Dharmas] - because [in this case, it is characterized by the only property to have its own form of media [i.e., substance]?
- Here, indeed, [there are only] three quality specific media: exhausted, appeared and "unspeakable". Exhausted are those which, having fulfilled their function, ceased to exist; appeared - those who carry out their activities, and they directly precede their future distinctive sign. Past - [those that] preceded the present.
- Why the real [Dharma] does not precede directly last [qualitative certainty]?
Because there is no relation of precedence and sequence, which exists between the present and the future 2. In the case of the last it is not. So there is no [anything] directly precedes the past. Hence [it follows that] it is a future which immediately follows the present.
Further, what is "unspeakable"?
- Everything is contained in everything. In this regard it was said:
"The all-pervading juices and other [products] transformation [of elements of] water and earth are found in fixed plants. In the same way [that transformirovalsya] in plants [found and] animals, [and the fact that transformirovalsya] animals, [is found] in plants. And so, because of the indivisibility of the generic essence, "everything contains everything", but because of the connection with space, time, individual form and conditions [of existence of the Dharma], of course, do not manifest themselves simultaneously. What is present in [all] these manifested and unmanifested qualitative certainties, being in nature and of General and specific, is the vehicle, [that is, the substrate, inseparably] linked [with the Dharmas]".
However, [who argues that] this whole world there is only Dharma, not associated [with any substance, no] experience the impossible.
- [Ask]: as the consciousness of a single subject of experience can be considered responsible for the action committed by another [consciousness] ? In addition, in this case, it would not exist and memory, because no one can remember what was seen by others. Of recognition of the real object, [perceived in the past], we can conclude about the existence of a stable samosoglasovannogo substrate receiving different qualitatively-defined conditions. Therefore, [you cannot accept that] this whole world there is only Dharma, not related to [any substance] 4.
Review Of Vadim Zaporozhtseva: So. To redeem the karma of good deeds, in karma at all you can not argue. Just, if you spend this energy reasoning to do a few good deeds can, and do argue, then nothing will.
Disciple: But where is the substance of karma? What is it?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: it is believed that somewhere in heaven the angels record positive and negative actions of people. In medieval insane mind that created mass hysteria and psychosis, it was all in the form of a list. As a medieval peasant was afraid of a local landowner, who is competent, who writes it up, how much he owed him, how many don't have, etc., in the same way and in the mind arose the image of that karma where something is written outside. And outside there it is not written! It is, first and foremost, in ourselves. We are carriers of his own karma.
Student: so? In what way?
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: In all plans. Up to our location.
Our position in space and in time is also determined by our karma. Sometimes people ask: "I'm so white and fluffy, why do I have bad karma? Why do I feel?" Sometimes bad karma can be that a person is born in that place and in those conditions in which born. He is white and fluffy, with lovely manners and qualities. The question arises: "what innocent soul suffers? He is good on all sides, and suffering!". Unfortunately, he had bad karma, but bad karma resulted not in what he to physical or emotional suffering, but the fact that it's just put in this time and in this place.
Student: Rather, he himself put there
Vadim Zaporozhtsev: on the other hand, it's all external. It is an external experience. And we just said that any external leads to internal modification. Substance of the mind – Patanjali. In some schools – substance only, but that's because it is not done grading, but because the mind is just refined matter.
So, there, in the substances of the mind, suspended it all, and further experience is bringing something new, which is conducted through the old channels of previous experience and, accordingly, is well plastered, as the chimney sweep through the chimney. Similarly, we have: any phenomenon that comes into our lives, if it passes through all the intricacies of our mind gets its color. So I explained here, without going into all metaphysics. Because sometimes pure logic can not explain. Yoga is more than just an intellectual understanding.
ABOUT PERFECT ABILITIES (VIBHUTIPADA)
1.1. Vācaspati miśra commented here bhasya of Vyasa: "the first and second chapters [of the treatise] have been described focusing of consciousness and the means of its implementation. In the third Chapter the need to consider paranormal, or advanced abilities, which are the reasons of faith (Sraddhotpada) and conducive (anugunah) the experience of this [concentration]. They must be implemented through sanyama. Sanyama have an aggregate (samudaya) [methods of work with consciousness that includes] concentration, and Dhyana concentration. These three are the means of realization of paranormal abilities, and they are mentioned in order to show their details (visesa) as the internal components of yoga as opposed to five components that serve external [yoga means].
Here, too, concentration, Dhyana and concentration are in a relationship of cause and effect; because of the immutability of their preceding and following installed [this] order. Thus, must first determine the concentration. Therefore, [the author] says: "Concentration is fixing the mind on [a particular] place (desabandha)". [Vyasa] who talks about the inner [i.e. located in the body of the individual] places: "umbilical centre nabhicakre)...". The word "and other" need to understand the palate (talu), etc. Fixation, or focus (bandha), there is a connection (sambandha, connection). About foreign places, he says: "...or to the external [objects]". However, external [objects of] consciousness by its nature cannot enter into [direct] relationship. So [in phase] said, "Only through [its] deployment", i.e. only through knowledge (jnanamatrena)" [TV III. 1, p. 119].
2.1. In the Sanskrit text pratyayaikatanata. In the logical-discursive treatises keyword (term) pratyaya means the content of a discrete cognitive act, or a separate cognition.
2.2. In the Sanskrit text aparamrsta.
2.3. Commenting on this brief explanation of Vācaspati miśra wrote: "[the Author] identifies the Dhyana as what should be implemented (sadhyam) through concentration (dharana). The uniformity of the flow [means] one-pointedness (ekagrata). Review of Vyasa clear itself. [They say] also in the Puranas: "an unbroken succession of contents of consciousness focused on form and not distracted by desire (nisprha) [anything] else— this is Dhyana. She, o king, invoked the first six components of the [yoga]" "[TV III. 2, p. 120]. John. Woods identifies the quote of "Vishnu-Purana" (VI.7.89). Cm. [Woods, 1914, p. 204].
3.1. In the Sanskrit text dhyeyakaranirbhasam.
3.2. In his commentary to the commentary of vyāsa, Vācaspati miśra explains: "...is displayed (nirbhasa) just as the form of the contemplate object" means that it manifests itself as a form of the object of contemplation (dhyeyakara), but not how to form the Dhyana (dhyanakara). That is why [the author] says: "...devoid (Sunya — lit. "empty."— TRANS.]".
— But if [Dhyana] is devoid of its own form, how can appear the object of contemplation?
So [then] said: "...as if." [Vyasa] explains the reason: "...due to the complete dissolution in the inner nature (i.e. essence) sosetelor object". About this [it is said] also in the Puranas: "the Comprehension (in the original text — grahana) of his inner essence (Vishnu), free from mental construction (kalpana — conceptualization), that must be implemented by Manas in profound contemplation, is called concentration" ( Vishnu-Purana.VI. 7.90; identification of John. Woods [Woods, 1914, p. 205, note. 1]). Mental design (conceptualization) there is a distinction between the process of contemplation (dhyana) and contemplation (dhyeya). [Concentration] — that devoid of such discernment. This is the meaning [of the commentary of Vyasa].
Kalidjaga, describing eight support components of yoga for Chandice (for details, see [D, p. 409-410]), concludes: "Knowing field (ksetrajfia) — one who possesses reason (karani); knowledge is the instrumental cause, or means (karana), and it is devoid of the spirit (acetana). After completing the task (karya) release, it without having more of the tasks that need to be resolved (vaikr-takrtyam), it ceases to function" "[TV III. 3, p. 120] About the identification of quotes from "Vishnu Purana", see [Woods, 1914, p. 205, note. 2].
4.1. In the Sanskrit original ...asya trayasya tdntriki paribhasd sarriyarna ifi. We prefer to leave this technical term in transliteration in the absence of a clear equivalent. In a General sense "sanyama" means actually psychotechnical procedure as such.
Vācaspati miśra says: "These three [words] is the concentration (dharana), contemplation, or Dhyana, concentration (samadhi) — are used everywhere in the close value], and it would be too time-consuming [each time] to bring the appropriate technical term (samjna). Therefore, for brevity, [the author] speaks to their technical use (paribhasa) in the Sutra; "the Three together — San-pit".
He explains: "Having the same area (ekavisayani) [of application]". To eliminate doubts about their collective ability (vacakatva) said: "...for these three." The system (tantra) is the science (is sastra). which is yoga. "In this system" means: that refers to it. Scope of use [of the term] sanyama as [in Sutra III, 16]: "Due to sanyama three changes" and in similar [cases]" [TV III. 4, p. 120-121].
5.1. "[The author] talks about the fruit of mastering Canyamel, by means of which is practice (abhyasa): "...the light of wisdom (prajnaloka)". The light of wisdom due to the fact that she is untroubled stream (nirmalapravahe), which is not mixed with the other contents of consciousness (pratyaya)" [cm. [TV III. 5, p. 121].
6.1. In the Sanskrit text viniyoga
6.2. In the Sanskrit text pranidhana; edition Vidyasagara here, however, prasadat.
6.3. Vācaspati miśra examines in detail the commentary of Vyasa: "In some cases, however, the use of sanyama brings forth its fruit? [Patanjali] says, "Its application is by stages" (lit. "at different stages (bhumisu — levels)", — TRANS.) Author bhasi says [the meaning of] tier: "...to the stage". Its application [must be] to that level, which is still unsurpassed and immediately after the exceeded level. When discursive concentration (savitarka samadhi) in the "outline" object (sthulavisaya) developed by sanyama, its subsequent application relates to nedokoncena (nirvitarka) concentration, which is [the yogi] had not yet mastered. When [focus] is fulfilled (vailkrte), [sanyama] applies to reflexive (savicare) [concentration] — in that sense [it is said Vyasa]. Similarly to non-reflexive (nirvicare) concentration.
That is why in the "Vishnu Purana", once it reached perfection in the practice of concentration (samapatti) in the "outline object, introduced (avatanta) focusing on "subtle" (suksma) object.
But why, after [the yogin] possessed a lower level [of concentration], it takes a higher level? Why there is no reverse [sequence] (viparyaya) ?
— It [the author] says: "Not having mastered the previous level [of concentration, the yogin can't...]". So, [one who] goes from Chilahati to the Ganges, can't reach her, not before passing Meghavanna.
— Why is [the commentary says]: "Sanyama [the yogin], which is due to the worship of Ishvara, possessed a higher level..."?
— Because the goal, i.e. perfection, obtained at a higher level, can be reached by a different [way], i.e. the [one] devotion to Ishvara. For when the action has exhausted its function (nispaditakriye karmani), the means of realization (sadhana), not causing anything more specific that falls out of the known patterns.
This may be so. From traditional texts (agamatah), in General know, what is the difference between hierarchy levels. But how do you know which one follows which?
Therefore, [the author] says: "[Knowledge] that..." When [the adept] possessed prior yogic level, it becomes the basis for knowledge of what happens at the next level. It should be understood [in the sense] that the condition is determined to be identical to [yoga], characterized this as" [TV III. 6, pp. 121-122].
7.1. In the Sanskrit text antarahga.
7.2. Vācaspati miśra says the traditional hierarchy of means, rather, components of yoga (yoganga): "Why is everywhere [it is] about the use of sanyama, but not the other five [means], although both are components of yoga without [any] exceptions?
[Patanjali] says: "...three are internal funds..." These three means of implementation [of concentration], since their object is the same, [as the object of the yoga], which must be implemented (sadhya), [are called] by direct means, or factors (anga). Self-control (yama) and other are not, so they [are called] by external means,— such is the meaning [stated]" (TV III. 7, p. 122].
8.1. In the Sanskrit text bahirangam nir6ijasya.
8.2. Explaining the ratio of external and internal factors in terms of yoga as such, i.e. psycho-technical practices modify States of consciousness, Vācaspati Misra writes: "These three means of implementation are the immediate factors only for cognitive (samprajnata) [concentration, that is, when the work of consciousness with the object], but not for non (asamprajna-ta - unconscious) [concentration], for times non [concentration] "devoid of seed" (nirbija), for him there is the same object that these three. And because the [non concentration] occurs after the three were stopped (niruddha) for a long time, and after reaching the highest state of dispassion (paramakastha), representing unshakable calmness of knowledge (jnana), to the extent its other name — upper limit cognitive [yoga]. Therefore, [the author] says: "These three..."
Thus, what defines (prayojaka) the property of being an internal factor [in terms of cognitive mindfulness] is the common object (samanavi-gayatva) and not [easy] sequence. For this [sequence], which could occur, for example, in the case of devotion to Ishvara (isvarapra-mdhane) as an external factor, would make the use of [the concept of intrinsic factor] logically too wide (savyabhicara)" [TV III. 8, p. 122].
9.1. In the Sutra vyutthdnanirodhasamskdrayorabhibhdvaprddurbhdvau nirodhaksanaci-ttdnvayo nirodhapariydnzah.
Vyuttfydna — active manifestation denotes here the opposite, on the one hand, nirodha (cessation or stop), and with another — asaya (latent or potentialisation).
9.2. Samskaras (formative factors) continue to function and cessation of all cognitive acts.
9.3. In the Sanskrit text abhibhdvapradurbhdvau that could be interpreted as sublimation and the activation of qualitatively different mental state, which is acquired (adhiyante) sanskaras deprived of their "shaping" skills.
9.4. Vācaspati miśra strives to clarify the meaning of the sutras and the commentary of Vyasa to her. "Intending to explain the three [aspects] of the transformation (parinama) that are introduced [in the Sutra III. 16]: "Due to sanyama three changes," [the author] asks the question regarding "devoid of the seed" (nirbija) [concentration]: "If... etc?"
When [normal] active deployment of consciousness and cognitive concentration due to direct experiencing (anubhava) of the many clearly-defined transformations [no] question does not arise. But when you stop [the deployment of consciousness it] transformation is not a matter of experience (nanub-huyate). However, it is impossible [to think that] it does not exist because it is not a matter of experience, for consciousness (citta — psyche) is caused by three underlying components (i.e., modes) that are in [continuous] movement, it is impossible that the mode did not change even for one moment — this is the meaning of [the above].
The answer to the question [is given] in the Sutra: "Changing the stop (nirodhaparinama)...". Compared to the non unconscious cognitive concentration [concentration] — actively showing (vyutthana). Stopping, or cessation (nirodha),— that by which [consciousness] is stopped (nirudhyate 'nena) is undisturbed clarity ("clarity") knowledge (jflanaprasada) [and] higher dispassion (vairagya). "The weakening and emergence" [refers here to the definition for their form factors [status] active manifestation (vyutthana) and termination (nirodha), that is [referring to] the weakening (disappearance?) Samskaras in a state of active manifestation and the appearance of sanskaras in consciousness.
Consciousness [as] the substrate (dharmin media quality) to the moment the stop (nirodhaksana), i.e. at the termination of the activity [of consciousness] (nirodhavasara), is inseparably connected with both States (dvayoravasthayoranvayah), because the consciousness as the substratum (dharmi) and cognitive and non focusing on your inner essence (svarupena) does not differ from the freeze-dried (abhibhava) [or] manifesting (pradurbhava) sanskar.
— But is, like the subsequent affects (uttare kleSah) based on ignorance (avidyamula), eliminated (nivartante) during the elimination (nivrttau) of ignorance and [therefore] no need for approval (PA ...as-thiyate) other special effort (prthakprayatna) for their suppression, Samskaras rooted in [actively] manifested cognitive acts (vyutthanapra-tyayamulah) do not cease with the termination of manifesting cognitive acts? And means to stop them is not required [separate] formative factor a [of it] (nirodhasamskara)?
— So [the author] says: "Actively manifested sanskaras... the Termination of only one of the reasons is not a basis for termination of the investigation. After all, we do not believe that termination [of existence] weaver (kuvinda) is destroyed also and the fabric. However, the consequence of which is the essential nature of the cause (karanatmakam karyam), ceases to exist with the disappearance of its cause. Those subsequent affects (uttare klesah) was [previously] identified as having the essence of ignorance; therefore, their termination is achieved by removing ignorance.
However, Samskaras are not [in the sense of possessing] the essence of cognitive actos (pratyaya — content of consciousness), because the phenomenon of memory (remembering) is detected and, if long-lapsed act of cognition (ciraniruddhepratyaya). Therefore, even when stopped cognitive acts need to be addressed (upasamya) accumulation (upacaya) of the formative factors of stop (activities of consciousness] for their complete elimination (vivrtti) — this is the meaning [of the commentary of Vyasa]. The rest is well understood (sugamam)" [TV III. 9, p. 123-124].
10.1. In the Sanskrit text tasya prasdntavdhita.
10.2. "What is the transformation [of consciousness] is called "strong" (balavata) sanskaras stop [it] when actively manifesting forming factors are overcome? [The author] explains why:
"The peaceful flow [is achieved] through sanskara".
Calm, [does] not vozmuschenie for is only a continuous period of [form factors] stay free from the polluting influence actively manifested sanskar.
But why is it depends on the intensity (patava) [generation] sanskar, and not only on [themselves] sanskar?
— So [the author] says: "With the weakening (mandye) such sanskar". [The word] "of" indicates [sanskara] stop.
Those who adhere to the reading (pathanti) "does not overcome" mean in this case [sanskara] active manifestation (vyutthana)" [TV III. 10, p.124].
11.1. In the Sutra sarvdrthatailcdgratayoh ksayodayau cittasya samadhiparinamah. In his commentary on Vyasa says that the multidirectionality (sarvarthata — letters. "useobjects") and one-pointedness (ekagrata) is the properties of one and the same consciousness (chtadharma).
11.2. In the Sanskrit text here samadhiyate.
11.3. Vācaspati miśra explains: "In the sutras [of Patanjali] reveals the transformation of consciousness in the cognitive concentration, [saying]: "changes in the concentration... of mnogonatsionaljnostj...".
Focus on a set of objects has a property of scattering consciousness (viksiptata — see in detail [YS I. 1.]). Being always existing (in the edition of Vidyasagara here: sa PA, Bodas — sa PA), it does not disappear. The weakening (ksaya) — [gradual] the disappearance (tirobhava). Non-existent (asad) arises [in the mind]; therefore, the increase (udaya — lit. "ascent". — Per.) there is the appearance (avirbhava). Consciousness, which by its very nature is associated with the [gradual] disappearance (araua) mnogonatsionaljnostj and the emergence of the single-slope operation as [their] quality characteristics... tends to concentrate, i.e., specified concentration, which is realized (sadhyamana) gradually in the [inherent] sequence (purvaparibhuta)". Cm. (TV III. 11, p.124].
12.1. In the Sanskrit text sanwhitacittasya; in the interpretation of composites by type bahuvrhi; "he, whose mind is concentrated".
12.2. In the Sanskrit text Santa. Vyasa has in mind that the content of the cognitive act (pratyaya) are not affected by the inflow of affectivity. CP. sasrava in the interpretation of Vasubandhu [AKV I. 4].
12.3. "...After him there" — udita (lit. "the rising, rising").
12.4. In the Sanskrit text a... bhresdt (lit. "to the loss of [state of concentration] ).
12.5. In his commentary, Vācaspati miśra further clarifies the meaning of certain terms, "...change..." And that is when I finally realized (nispattau) [all] serial condition [in achieving] mindfulness, cognitive acts — "soothing" and arose, or, [in other words], past and present, are identical (tulya — identical). However, the identity [only] by one-way and the other. "He, whose mind is concentrated" indicates that the implementation process of concentration is completed. [The author] talks about the border [of this state]: "before the termination of mindfulness", that is, before the release [of it]" [TV III. 12, p. 125].
13.1. The term dharma (quality quality or certainty) in the system of Sankhya-yoga encodes the concept, although introduced, apparently under the strong influence of Buddhist philosophy, but generally not beyond the outlined doctrinal attitudes brahmanistic religious and philosophical darshan. For clearer understanding of the specific understanding of the term "Dharma" in the commentary of Vyasa, it seems appropriate to speak very briefly on the concept of Dharma in classical Buddhist philosophy as it is presented in the "Encyclopedia of Abhidharma" Vasubandhu.
The Central position of the Buddhist doctrine were developed outside the Brahma-forum tradition, and if you mentioned the idea of Atman (spiritual substance) at all, treated it as a simple linguistic metaphor used to denote the individual psyche. The latter, in turn, was considered in unity with the physiological basis of flow as qualitatively-defined conditions (Dharmas).Out of this quality of certainty psyche never acted, and therefore the idea of the pure Atman is subject to elimination. Philosophical language descriptions were constructed so as to completely destroy the idea of pure Atman, which required the destruction of supporting this idea of philosophical principles, especially the principle of Indian philosophical realism dharma-dharmi-bheda (differences between a carrier and its properties). In abhidharmic-tion of the philosophy of property (Dharma) is not something inherent to the media (dharmin), since there is no media that is free from properties. In other words, completely eliminated the idea of substantiality, especially in the doctrine it is also missing.
The term "Dharma" functions throughout the text of "Encyclopedia of Abhidharma" Vasubandhu not as opposition to the term "dharmin", but completely independently. This is the fundamental distinguishing feature of the description language of Buddhist philosophy. Dharma is defined as the svalaksana, svarupa and svabhava. These three essential definitions characterize the notion of pappasito, the basic concept of the doctrine. In other words, Dharma is introduced as a concept defined through itself.
Definition svalaksana [AKV I. 2] represents the Dharma as something that can only be determined through your own sign, ie, a sign on the scope and content coincides with the essence of the defined concepts. Each Dharma is unique, and in this sense it is a generic-specific class with a single content; therefore, svalaksana is both generic characteristics (jati) of each individual Dharma. But since the existence of Dharmas distributed in time (atita — the past, the pratyutpanna — present anagata — future), to describe this distribution introduces a specification of the second order — jatiyat-va, i.e., the actual possession of generic characteristics in the three modes of the time (tryadhva). The last circumstance directly connects the definition of Dharma as svalaksana with its other definition as svabhava.
The definition of svabhava implies the constancy of the existence of the Dharma in her own and constant quality, and because of this svabhava can be understood as "that which has its own nature." The formal manifestation of this nature is indistinguishable from its essence, and therefore Dharma is defined as svarupa.
In summary, it can be argued that the term "Dharma" always operates on the logical-discursive level, as a philosophical term, with the only difference that it has more General and highly specialised area of use. In a broad sense that Temin can be labeled anything that has somatostatine qualitative and quantitative certainty. Philosophical pragmatics of its use in this sense is aimed at the elimination of ideas about pure substances and specifies its relation to pressnet. The situation of this use of the term very clearly demonstrates the Buddhist nominalism, not separates generic characteristics from the being of things as such. In a narrow sense, Dharma acts simultaneously as the unit of the description of the functioning of the psyche in indissoluble unity with its substrate and the outer world, and as being qualitatively of certain basic psycho-physical States.
From the commentary of Vyasa Sutra to the A1.13 that he was under significant influence of abhidharmists concepts, though, and tried to rethink them in the context of the basic theory of Sankhya-yoga is about transformation (parinama).
13.2. In the Sanskrit text of the diamond. Vācaspati miśra defines this term as follows: "a Distinctive feature or characteristic (diamond), is what characterizes (laksyate nena) temporary difference (kalabhedah) [object]. Specified thus the real object (vastu) is distinguished from other objects involved in its existence with other temporary modes" [TV III. 13, pp. 125 — 126]. Read more about the concept laksanaparinama see [Dasgupta, 1930, p. 116-117].
With regard to the transformation condition (avasthaparinama), then, as noted by S. Dasgupta, essentially it is identical to the transformation of distinctive properties (laksanaparinama) and can therefore be considered as one of its aspects. Cm. [Dasgupta, 1920, pp. 72-73].
13.3. In the Sanskrit text dharmatvamanatikrdnta. Cm. also review Vācaspati miśra [TV III. 13, p. 126].
13.4. In the Sanskrit text calam ca gunavrttam.
13.5. This part of the commentary of Vyasa reproduces the point of view of one of the famous theorists of the Sarvastivada (vaibhashika), Dharmatala, according to which in time changes only the form of existence (bhava) but not substance (dravya). Details of the discussion abhidharmists about changing forms of existence, the distinctive properties (diamond) or state (avastha), see [AKV V. 24-26]; translation of the Tibetan version of this fragment of AKV is shown in kN. [Stcherbatsky. 1923, p. 76-91].
13.6. In the Sanskrit text padarthantaresu. It is likely that Vyasa has here in mind the category of other systems of Indian philosophical realism. Vācaspati miśra leaves this phrase without comment.
14.1. In the Sanskrit text svavydpara, which again indicates a good knowledge of Vyasa, abhidharmists the notion that Dharma in this form of time is determined through its (Dharma -) effectiveness.
14.2. In the Sanskrit text purvapascimata. In his translation of John. Woods refer here to the Varttika, according to which this type of relationship should be viewed as pragabhava i.e. prior to the absence. Cm. [Woods, 1914, p. 225].
14.3. In the Sanskrit text anupati — "happy as a result."
14.4. In this discussion the real (or imaginary) opponent of Vyasa speaks a follower of the Buddhist concept of the sarvasti (lit. "all there is"), according to which the whole world is "just Dharma" (dharmamatra) connected by a causal law-dependent arising (pratityasamutpada).
15.1. In the Sanskrit text dharmadharmibheda (lit. "the distinction between property and [his] vehicle") is one of the basic principles of Indian philosophical realism, with exceptional fullness developed in the syncretic school of Nyaya-Vaisheshika. This principle was determined by the basic doctrinal position brahmanistic religious and philosophical systems about the existence of one Supreme Atman — mental substance, is free from any quality of certainty. All of psychotechnical practice of Brahmanism were built in such a way as to transform the individual psyche by way of its "purification" from any subjective certainty.
The quality and action (guna and karma) as a philosophical concept was seen as something separate from its carrier and contacted with the latest asymmetric for domestic presumest (samavaya). In other words, the media interpreted as a receptacle (adhara), and qualities and actions — as enclosing (adheya). Fundamental nerodstvenniki blank media, taken out of their qualities, the media quality-certain has been restated in the leading postulates of philosophical realism, expressed by the formula dharma-dharmi-bheda. For details, see [Annambhatta,pp. 17—18].
15.2. In the Sanskrit text vastumatratmaka.
15.3. These last undeveloped or imperceptible (aparidrsta) quality specific detail in the comments Vācaspati miśra [TV III, 15, p. 136]: "the Termination [of the functioning of consciousness] (nirodha), there is unconsciousness (asamprajfiata) of mind (cittasya). Its existence is learned through authoritative verbal testimony (agamatah) and inferences (anumanatah) on the condition in which remain only the Samskaras (formative factors). The word "Dharma," or righteous life, is determined by the virtue (punya) and its absence. Sometimes [it means] karma. In this case, it also refers to the virtue or lack of it as the product of appropriate [way of life]. That and another becomes known for on the basis of authoritative evidence or inferences regarding experiencing happiness or suffering..." etc.
16.1. In the Sanskrit text saksat kriyamana.
17.1. Vyasa, as can be seen from the commentary to this Sutra, linguophilosophical adheres to a traditional concept according to which the mental unit-level bilateral; they contain the "expressing" and "expressed" or "meaning" and "referent" (vacaka, vacya). The distinction between word (sabda) and sound (dhvani or varna) is fundamental to Indian philosophy of language, and their identification, in which the complex sounds were accepted because of the word, has always been seen as a categorical error. Transfer values — a function words that sound the same (nadanusamhara, i.e. the inseparability of sound) only detects it.
Other interpretations of this fragment of the commentary of vyāsa, see [Woods, 1914, p. 233; Biardeau, 1964, p. 388].
17.2. Lit. "it is [the concept], "expressing" (vacaka) for a single object". CP. also the interpretation of M. Biardo [Biardeau, 1964, p. 389].
17.3. In the original text: Uo 'Sabdah sf yam/yam arthah ya rthah yo rfhah sa sabda.
17.4. For details, see [TV III, 17, p. 143] and translated by George. Woods [Woods, 1914, p. 245].