2009.04.25 Analysis of yoga systems of axioms "Micro" and "macrocosm." (Vadim Zaporozhtsev)
Short description: Why in yoga there is two of the axioms of the system? Interconnection system of axioms of the macrocosm and the microcosm - the axiom of non-contradiction of these systems of axioms. The first and second principles of yoga. The first and second non-contradiction of the principles of yoga. Dharma. The method of yoga - harmony method. Yoga can not be taught but can be learned. The goal of yoga - the expansion of freedom.
Date and place of the lecture read:
2009.04.25 Cultural Center "Enlightenment".
Today, April 25, 2009, my name is Vadim Zaporozhtsev, we are in KC Enlightenment in Moscow, near m. "Novoslobodskaya". This lecture for Yoga Open University. All information is stored on sites www.openyoga.ru, www.happyoga.narod.ru, www.yogacenter.ru.
We continue our series of lectures "Introduction to the axioms of Yoga." Once again I repeat that this is - just an introduction to the axioms of yoga, the first steps that man should do in the way of theoretical study of yoga. The Open Yoga University in the first place, we are preparing a real teachers, who will be a real yoga on people. So the whole theory we are forced to give only to the extent that we need to implement the transfer of practices, transfer of knowledge to people. Therefore, a course on introduction to yoga axiomatic entirely constructed in such a way as to highlight the main points. Then everyone must continue to study yoga or axiomatic in the relevant sections and courses or independently.
At the last session, we have completed to consider the system of axioms of the macrocosm. And now we are waiting for some analysis of these groups of axioms. I recall once again the fundamental axiom of yoga: Yoga sverhlogichny original position and there is no way to express them in words. Yoga claims that there is an infinite number of attempts to put into words the original sverhlogichnye axioms on which the knowledge of yoga. Finally, following the axiomatic status: that of an infinite number of two independent axiom system can distinguish the possible axiomatic systems and all other systems of axioms that may exist, in principle, derived from the combination of these two systems. The number of axiomatic systems of yoga infinite number of yoga schools, which may use one or another system of axioms, and uncountable. But at the same time it is possible to classify each system by the axioms, as it relates to the two basic systems, which we had in previous sessions to consider.
And why is there two of the axioms of the system (system of axioms microcosm and macrocosm system of axioms)? Why were they not three, not five, not ten?
To answer this question, we can not, because I have not grown before the intellectual level, which was observed by the ancient teachers of yoga. We only can only come closer to understanding why several of them. Oddly enough, in the sense that we can help the analogy that occurs in our sciences, and especially in mathematics. A certain parallel can be traced to the sections of higher mathematics that are just engaged in what is called logic.
I want to mention one mathematician, Gödel his name. He was quite serious study - incompleteness theorem. This is a purely logical, mathematical science section. So if in a few words to explain what came as modern mathematics, it is the following provision: no system of axioms is not complete. Or even more simple terms: in 1900, the mathematician David Hilbert posed the problem of higher mathematics for the next few years to come up with a system of axioms, where all leads, where one would logically follow from the other, etc. That is, Gilbert wanted to create axioms of mathematics. And in the 30s suddenly Godel proved a theorem that it is impossible to create axioms, any system of axioms always be incomplete. This is quite interesting and strange statement that any system of axioms - incomplete.
Once again: we do not understand the logic of the ancient yogis. But, apparently, they have something like guess. And these two groups of axioms - axioms system macrocosm and microcosm system of axioms - describe and explain in essence the same phenomenon, but as if the two sides are trying to approach them. Perhaps the presence of the two due to the irresistible conclusion axiom systems that in one of the axioms of the system even come close to a full description impossible. Thus, even modern mathematics makes it clear why these two systems (the macrocosm and the microcosm system of axioms the axioms of the system) because one system it would be a half-hearted attempt to describe.
On the other hand, why they are not three, not five, not ten, we can not say. I hope that in the future yoga will increasingly grow what the best minds rather than to engage in some unworthy things in life, will set itself the aim of our knowledge of the universe and will be able to reveal the secrets of yoga, yoga secrets axiomatic. This is a very serious work. In fact it no one did. Now there are only scraps of information have come down to us from ancient times.
From time to time I hear the statement that all have long proved that everything is already open, or that somewhere in the East of the Himalayas, people are aware, people are able to. Friends, the more I study this issue, in order to more sad conclusion I come: in fact no one does anything. Our idea that somewhere in the Himalayas and sit sages on something such work may be true. But it seems to me that such sages of his work enough. That is our understanding that there is not sleeping, not eating, and develop the theory of yoga, or do not give it to disappear - it is no more than a myth, when we wishful thinking.
The cultural heritage of yoga - this ancient knowledge - has not yet been claimed. And if demand, the very low level and non-serious. However, even this is bearing fruit. People even become involved in their health. But yoga - it's not only physical health but also mental health and mental strength. So, yet nobody is doing, but I hope that in the future will be engaged. In our Yoga University we can not expend energy on these surveys. The objective of the Open University of Yoga more concrete and real - a very specific training of teachers of yoga - yoga philosophy is not an abstract (they, too, of course, necessary, but we can not afford it now). We need teachers who will pass on the specific types of yoga.
So, we have two groups of independent axioms. And in addition, there are independent axioms that bind these two groups. On the one hand, as if we come to that problem, which decided to Gödel.
What prevents us from both the first and second group, and linking these axioms combine into one large system of axioms, and thus once again to say that this system is not complete?
Yes, some may say so. But I remind you that there are beginning to creep into the elusive other factors, and in this respect, this system is also expanding. In addition, it is - two independent system of axioms. They are not dependent on each other, and only at their intersection we can approach the supreme system of axiomatic provisions that even the inexpressible.
The dual system is also observed in many philosophical systems. The most practical use of it, as it may seem, we can see in the accounts. People involved in the accounting department, often complain that their work is not interesting. Friends, if you truly understand the principles on which is arranged accounts! I remind you that this division of the asset, liability, etc. For example, an accountant in the West - it is rather a philosopher of the entire business process, which spreads all the debits and credits. Read the story of the emergence of the balance sheet. Once upon a time there was an urgent need to comprehensively reflect an event (primarily financial). They began to use two independent systems evaluations. And somewhere at the intersection of two parallel accounting systems can understand what the truth is. Anyway, for every accountant it is necessary and important that there was a balance - a balance between debits and credits to balance converged.
In yoga, there is the same situation: we have two independent system of axioms that are engaged in the description of the same only with different positions. You can display practices, which then turn into very specific types of yoga from each system of axioms.
And what about the two of the macrocosm and the microcosm of the axioms of the system are interconnected?
I repeat: we are on the very first lecture is considered. There is an axiom of non-contradiction of the two systems of axioms. Yoga techniques built on a system of axioms macrocosm and yoga techniques, built on a system of axioms microcosm, may be completely different and even contradictory. But ultimately, these techniques have lead to the same result.
This provision, you must always remember. Here you find yourself in a yoga school, and you say. "Do this, this, this" Get into another yoga school and hear: "Do something, and then" - just the opposite of what he is talking about the first school. When people are faced with the fact that one school of yoga say one position, and the other directly - the opposite position, here begins a kind of "fermentation of minds," especially in people who have recently started to practice yoga. In their mind can not meet, how can this be: right here, right there, is saying, "Go out there," and then say. "Go in the opposite direction" An example would be a huge amount. In one school said that it is necessary to limit themselves in sex, and in the other school says that sex - it is a great springboard for the development of yoga. One school says that you need to follow a sequence of exercises, but at another school said that in any case are not such, but quite another.
Why are there differences in the approaches of different schools of yoga?
Different approaches occur because the two schools of yoga can be built on different systems. And the methods they provide can sometimes be quite contradictory. It's, you know, like on top of a mountain to climb. If you go, you say the north side, "Take a compass, and go toward the south." And if you climb on the south side, you say: "Take a compass and go north." And a poor man who does not see this mountain, but just reading notes of travelers, it seems that something is not right here. A traveler said: "I'm going to the north and reached the top of the mountain." Read about another traveler, and he writes that went to the south, and also reached the top of the mountain. Who is right? There is the same situation as the circumnavigation around the globe: you swim from one point, and you get to the same point on the other side only.
There is a kind of closed the integrity of that seemingly contradict our logic. But it does not violate our logic, and simply escapes us. The same situation here. But the result should be the same. If the result is different, then the trouble really. The results should be the same, because and she and the other system of axioms essentially describe the same thing, and should lead to a common higher result. From this output method. After all, what is yoga? Yoga - a system of self-giving method. Later we will talk about this method, but for now let us return to the system.
The first and second principles of yoga.
So, if we analyze both the axiom system, without going into detail, taking the "dry residue", it turns out that the system of axioms macrocosm leads us to the first principle of yoga. He says that we should by all means try not to harm any living being unless absolutely necessary. And if you can not do no harm, you should do what tells your debt. This principle of non-violence principle sverhlogichnosti - the first principle of yoga.
With yoga positions can not be refuted by the fact that we should be good. Sometimes I hear what they say - you have to be good, because There is the law of karma: "What goes around, comes around", that is, made some bad thing - it is to you and will be back. Yes, indeed, it is the law of karma and operates. Or maybe I want to came back to me a bad deed. You know, sometimes people ask to be struck, so that they jolted and a came. Again, the logic is broken. Man thinks that now he will make a lot of evil, this evil will come back to him, shake well, and it is a nice little run in the direction of spiritual development and enlightenment. Certainly, these provisions do not stand up to scrutiny. There is no clear rationale as to what not to do evil. The principle of not causing harm - the principle sverhlogichny. We have no logical reason to be good. On the contrary, when a person develops his mind, he is inclined to be angry, not good. He's just trying to extract their profits, and if someone is standing in his way, he did not hesitate to eliminate a competitor. Talk to him about the law of karma is useless, he does not want to listen to, and if they want to, then maybe he voleizyavil: first, he does bad, and then it will do badly - on either side do not drive.
It turns out that the first principle of yoga - a squeeze out of the system of axioms of the macrocosm. If we analyze the microcosm axiomatic system, we find that the main point of reference - the "I" of each person, and all of this is dancing. When we say: "Everything depends on me, because my" I "is omnipotent. All I want - to be what I shall not want - will not "- is a logical course of action. And continuing to talk in the same spirit, it is quite natural to come to the second principle of yoga, which is that we should be spending their energy and consciousness only that which leads us to our goals. If something does not lead us to our goals, we must ruthlessly reject it as unnecessary, superfluous and escapist side. This is the second principle of yoga.
But two of these principles, as well as two systems of yoga the axioms do not contradict each other - is the cornerstone of yoga. If you begin to understand this, you will begin to understand yoga, if not - will not understand anything. Very often life confronts heads together first and second principle in our specific conditions. Yes, people do not want to hurt anyone. But life makes him go to their targets and necessary - willy-nilly - to push someone else.
These principles are not absolute. They do not say: Do not cause harm at all or not in doing those things that lead away. Principles are more advisory in nature, they indicate a certain strategy of behavior. We can not do no harm, in principle, we can only reduce it. We can not spend his every action to achieve the objective, if only because we do not have enough mental abilities to analyze whether we have a step leading to the goal, or is in the way - it is not always obvious. Yoga gives us not a set of hard and fast rules, but rather, quite movable recommendations. And every person they have a level one person is afraid to kill a mosquito, which bites him, and someone has to home with a gun in his hand to defend. And it differently is the first principle of yoga is not to kill, he can not, otherwise the terrorists will break into the city and cut out half of the population, and karma will be on it. And his criterion - it's not quite not to kill, and kill as few as possible.
The first and second non-contradiction of the principles of yoga.
The wisdom of yoga is that it is not unsubstantiated claims, such as "Thou shalt not kill." There are situations in life, if you do not kill, the consequences for the whole of the universe and you will be much worse than if you killed. We seem to be slipping into the concept of our debt. So, the first principle teaches us to reduce the suffering of all sentient beings. The second principle - do not squander on trifles. According to the axiom, and he and the other principle should lead us to a common goal. And it means that these two principles are not contradictory. And if contrary to bang their heads and in our particular personal life, it speaks about the degree of the severity of our karma.
Our task - to find a way to the first principle was disrupted as little as possible, and the second principle should be implemented to the maximum extent. And somewhere between these two principles and is a way of life. If we follow him, we would like at the same time trying to perform a yoga based on the system of the microcosm, and yoga, based on the system of the macrocosm. As a result, we are on the path, which in yoga called Dharma (the way of life, which leads us to the ultimate goal).
The concept of "Dharma" is very difficult to translate. He has two dozen completely different values with a wide spread of colors of these values. "Dharma" can also mean duty and virtue, and philosophical teaching, etc. But one of the best definitions:. Dharma - this is the way that most reduces the effects of our negative karma and at the same time to get the benefits of our positive karma. Moreover, going this way, sooner or later we arrive at the goal of yoga and exit planes of karma.
What is yoga?
If we analyze again the axiom that yoga techniques, built on a system of axioms of the macrocosm and the microcosm, may be quite different, but in the end lead to the same result, there is a concept of the method of yoga.
Often people ask me: "But this exercise is constricting or is - acrobatics, stretching the form?" How to distinguish what exercise is constricting exercise, and what came from another partition? It is difficult to answer this question. answer it is almost impossible without determining the method of yoga. Or if you are doing a particular meditation, how do you call it? And whether it's meditation or meditation? The scientist is sitting, focusing on solving the problem. Is it in a concentrated state solution to the problem, or simply move it science?
To answer the question: "Is there any exercise or yoga is not a" need to consistently respond to a series of other issues. And depending on those responses to take a decision, or rather, determining whether the exercise of yoga or not. Sometimes they offer a completely different combination of actions, calling it yoga. And who knows whether it is yoga, or another master of India came to us and begins to let in fog (especially if it is flavored by mysticism, myths about wise men, etc.). Sometimes it is very difficult to determine.
And what it is, in this case, yoga? This is a serious question. Yoga - a system of self-knowledge, but a lot of self-knowledge systems. Yoga - this is the self-system that adheres to the first principle (doing no harm) and the second principle (ie, makes a strong emphasis on common sense) or, in other words, it is - kindness and sanity.
The main constricting method is the method where it is necessary to make ourselves and somewhere you can afford. This method comes from the axiom of non-contradiction. The system of axioms microcosm - for people of strong-willed, which are used to make themselves constantly. The system of axioms of the macrocosm - is the system just for the people of the opposite of the warehouse; Here we give ourselves more process than make ourselves. The undeniable fact is that both of these methods should lead to the same result, although in appearance they are very different.
So, if we practice yoga, we need time to figure out where to change the method. Somewhere you need to make yourself, but then show wisdom, change tactics, and somewhere you need to allow yourself to relax. Thus, we are maneuvering between the two extremes. If we do not push yourself, what is there to yoga, if we just let ourselves?
The principle of harmony.
Many teachers of life say they do not have to do anything, you need to relax and everything will come by itself. There are other teachers who say the contrary, not to relax "wiggle will not, in general you do not come." Who is right? Both of these trends are taking place, but in different situations: sometimes work and sometimes not. We need what is called harmony.
In our definition of yoga - a system of self-knowledge, which adheres to the first and second principle, and thus uses the principle of harmony where it is necessary to get yourself somewhere you can afford. Thus, any exercise - physical or mental - can be an exercise like yoga or not to be. You stand on your head - whether it's yoga or exercise is acrobatics? This is determined by three components: the first and second yoga principle of harmony and technique. If at least one of something is not present, this system is not yoga system.
For this reason, it is very difficult to formalize yoga. Now full of organizations that are trying to certify yoga activities. After all, in the view of western official certification of yoga - it is a constant feeding trough. That is, if you will issue certificates, and even for the coin, then you will be pulled to the people, and you will live comfortably. But how can formally define a person does this or that exercise in harmony or not? Such a system can not come up with a definition in principle. We must somehow to look inside it. You can jump on the stones - and it can also be your yoga, there are dynamic practices. Is a teacher who gives these practices, a certified teacher or not? And how do you determine? You can look inside it? - You can not. Therefore, to all sorts of attempts to treat certification as a tribute to the bureaucracy. They can be useful if a part of the school. They need to know: who is with them, who are not with them, but as part of another school that same certificate can be just a piece of paper. Harmony is almost impossible to define. And all this from the axioms of non-contradiction.
Yoga can not be taught but can be learned.
A few words about harmony. Yoga encourages change tactics. You know how the military who want to capture the castle, used the tactics of frontal assault: assault and break all the chop? But sometimes the castle is very well protected and chosen another tactic - a tactic of attrition: the fortress and surrounded by either go or get out, and sooner or later a fortress surrendered. You can spend some analogy: we are fighting against ignorance, inside us there is a war with our own stupidity. With our stupidity can be controlled in different ways: sometimes active, sometimes passive. If you will always be active, you can commit follies. But passive, you can create the illusion that you are something you struggle, and not really doing anything. It is necessary to properly grasp the process of harmony and identify where you need to change tactics. As you know, one of you will not make it. Only you can know when to change tactics. Hence comes the expression: can not teach yoga, but yoga can be learned. No teacher of humanity for you, yoga does not, he will not tell you, but it can bring you to the fact that you do learn to recognize where both need to do.
Not to be confused with the change strategies conformism. Sometimes encounter people who say that here there are two extremes, let's add them up and divide by two, something mediocre work. So, following the harmonious method of Yoga has nothing to do with conformism when "and your, and our, and there, and here." So you can sit between two stools. yoga method - rather, it is something else: when these two extremes are beginning to counterbalance each other on the contrast.
I am very weakly imagine a person who may, for example, benefit only from such methods of yoga: relax, give yourself the universe, the universe will do everything for you. I do not believe that a man who could previously not strain, work, collect will in a fist, will benefit from this relaxation - and so he relaxed. On the other hand, if a man all his life in his hands all the holds and maybe even too holds, then what to call it yet to come? Where it collected - he was as taut string? For such a person is more effective the opposite approach - to relax a little bit. However, in each season may change. Moreover, at one and the same person in different matters where it is necessary to string up and at the same time, it should be released. The same situation in yoga classes. You practice different types of yoga (Hatha Yoga, Pranayama Yoga etc.) In one yoga need to string up, and in the other yoga is better not to force. And it is necessary to decide for himself. Who decides for you? - No one. Only your inner wisdom will tell you where to strain, and where to relax.
The goal of yoga - the expansion of freedom.
The indicator that you seriously and properly do yoga - it's growing sense of freedom. After all, in fact, yoga is designed to reveal in us what is already there - is freedom. Unfortunately, we can not take advantage of their freedom because of their ignorance or the stupidity of his own. When they say: "I did it ignorantly," it sounds more comely than if we say. "By committing to his folly" But this is a question of terminology. Getting rid of ignorance, we find that in us and so it is - a state of freedom.
There is another indirect sign to determine is this or that system of yoga or not. If a person is engaged in yoga, but the freedom it does not expand and is reduced, something goes wrong. Indeed, what is freedom? Could do something, because Health is not enough - gained health. Not enough intellectual power, were not you are free to speculate logically - and you have honed your mind and become free, is now a professor of philosophy and can talk and even with someone.
Of course, this is all private instances of freedom. The highest level of freedom - a spiritual freedom. If there is spiritual freedom, all other freedoms will make. Sometimes you meet a person, blinkered, superstitious, afraid of something. Among yogis meet people who seem to be engaged and yoga, but communicating with them, see what they are trapped: there do not look, do not do, and do not give the impression of a free people. A free man - uninhibited, natural. But it is an indirect sign.
We gave the definition of yoga, considered the first and second principles of yoga, as well as the harmony of method. It's called classical yogis. In contrast, there are so-called fast methods of yoga. But a quick method of yoga we will talk in the next lecture.